Showing posts with label Quantum Computing Applications. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Quantum Computing Applications. Show all posts

State Of An Emerging Quantum Computing Technology Ecosystem And Areas Of Business Applications.

    Quantum Computing Hardware.

    The ecosystem's hardware is a major barrier. The problem is both technical and structural in nature. 

    • The first issue is growing the number of qubits in a quantum computer while maintaining a high degree of qubit quality. 
    • Hardware has a high barrier to entry because it requires a rare mix of cash, experimental and theoretical quantum physics competence, and deep knowledge—particularly domain knowledge of the necessary implementation possibilities. 

    Several quantum-computing hardware platforms are presently in the works. 

    The realization of completely error-corrected, fault-tolerant quantum computing will be the most significant milestone, since a quantum computer cannot give precise, mathematically accurate outputs without it. 

    • Experts argue over whether quantum computers can provide substantial commercial value until they are entirely fault resilient. 
    • Many argue, however, that a lack of fault tolerance does not render quantum-computing systems unworkable. 

    When will we be able to tolerate flaws as in produce viable fault-tolerant quantum computing systems? 

    Most hardware companies are cautious to publish their development intentions, although a handful have done so openly. 

    By 2030, five manufacturers have said that they will have fault-tolerant quantum computing hardware. 

    If this timeframe holds true, the industry will most likely have established a distinct quantum advantage for many applications by then. 

    Quantum Computing Software.

    The number of software-focused startups is growing at a higher rate than any other part of the quantum-computing value chain. 

    • Sector players in the software industry today provide bespoke services and want to provide turnkey services as the industry matures. 
    • Organizations will be able to update their software tools and ultimately adopt completely quantum tools as quantum-computing software develops. 
    • Quantum computing, in the meanwhile, necessitates a new programming paradigm—as well as a new software stack. 
    • The bigger industry players often distribute their software-development kits for free in order to foster developer communities around their goods. 

    Quantum Computing Cloud-Based Services. 

    In the end, cloud-based quantum-computing services may become the most important aspect of the ecosystem, and those who manage them may reap enormous riches. 

    • Most cloud computing service providers now give access to quantum computers on their platforms, allowing prospective customers to try out the technology. 
    • Due to the impossibility of personal or mobile quantum computing this decade, early users may have to rely on the cloud to get a taste of the technology before the wider ecosystem grows. 

    Ecosystem of Quantum Computing.

    The foundations for a quantum-computing business have started to take shape. 

    According to our analysis, the value at stake for quantum-computing businesses is close to $80 billion (not to be confused with the value that quantum-computing use cases could generate). 

    Private And Public Funding For Quantum Computing

    Because quantum computing is still a relatively new topic, the bulk of funding for fundamental research is currently provided by the government. 

    Private financing, on the other hand, is fast expanding. 

    Investments in quantum computing start-ups have topped $1.7 billion in 2021 alone, more than double the amount raised in 2020. 

    • As quantum computer commercialization gathers steam, I anticipate private financing to increase dramatically. 
    • If leaders prepare now, a blossoming quantum-computing ecosystem and developing commercial use cases promise to produce enormous value for sectors. 

    Quantum computing's fast advancements serve as potent reminders that the technology is soon approaching commercial viability. 

    • For example, a Japanese research institute recently revealed a breakthrough in entangling qubits (quantum's fundamental unit of information, equivalent to bits in conventional computers) that might enhance error correction in quantum systems and pave the way for large-scale quantum computers. 
    • In addition, an Australian business has created software that has been demonstrated to boost the performance of any quantum-computing hardware in trials. 
    • Investment funds are flowing in, and quantum-computing start-ups are sprouting as advancements speed. 
    • Quantum computing is still being developed by major technological firms, with Alibaba, Amazon, IBM, Google, and Microsoft having already introduced commercial quantum-computing cloud services. 

    Of course, all of this effort does not always equate to commercial success. 

    While quantum computing has the potential to help organizations tackle challenges that are beyond the reach and speed of traditional high-performance computers, application cases are still mostly experimental and conceptual. 

    • Indeed, academics are still disputing the field's most fundamental concerns (for more on these unresolved questions, see the sidebar "Quantum Computing Debates"). 
    • Nonetheless, the behavior shows that CIOs and other executives who have been keeping an eye on quantum-computing developments may no longer be considered spectators. 
    • Leaders should begin to plan their quantum-computing strategy, particularly in businesses like pharmaceuticals that might profit from commercial quantum computing early on. 
    • Change might arrive as early as 2030, according to some firms, who anticipate that practical quantum technologies will be available by then. 

    I conducted extensive research and interviewed experts from around the world about quantum hardware, software, and applications; the emerging quantum-computing ecosystem; possible business use cases; and the most important drivers of the quantum-computing market to help leaders get started planning. 

    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

    Further Reading:

    You may also want to read more about Quantum Computing here.

    Quantum Computing's Future Outlook.


    Corporate executives from all sectors should plan for quantum computing's development. 

    I predict that quantum-computing use cases will have a hybrid operating model that is a mix of quantum and traditional high-performance computing until about 2030. 

    • Quantum-inspired algorithms, for example, may improve traditional high-performance computers. 
    • In order to develop quantum hardware and allow greater—and more complex—use cases beyond 2030, intensive continuous research by private enterprises and governmental organizations will be required
    • The route to commercialization of the technology will be determined by six important factors: finance, accessibility, standards, industry consortia, talent, and digital infrastructure. 

    Outsiders to the quantum-computing business should take five tangible measures to prepare for quantum computing's maturation: 

    • With an in-house team of quantum-computing specialists or by partnering with industry organizations and joining a quantum-computing consortium, keep up with industry advances and actively screen quantum-computing application cases. 
    • Recognize the most important risks, disruptions, and opportunities in their respective businesses. 
    • Consider partnering with or investing in quantum-computing players (mainly software) to make knowledge and expertise more accessible. 
    • Consider hiring quantum-computing experts in-house. Even a small team of up to three specialists may be sufficient to assist a company in exploring prospective use cases and screening potential quantum computing strategic investments. 
    • Build a digital infrastructure that can handle the fundamental operational needs of quantum computing, store important data in digital databases, and configure traditional computing processes to be quantum-ready whenever more powerful quantum hardware becomes available. 

    Every industry's leaders have a once-in-a-lifetime chance to keep on top of a generation-defining technology. 

    The reward might be strategic insights and increased company value.

    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

    You may also want to read more about Quantum Computing here.

    Quantum Computing - Areas Of Application.


    Quantum simulation, quantum linear algebra for AI and machine learning, quantum optimization and search, and quantum factorization are the four most well-known application cases. 

    I go through them in detail in this paper, as well as issues leaders should think about when evaluating prospective use cases. 

    I concentrate on prospective applications in a few areas that, according to studies, might profit the most in the near term from the technology: medicines, chemicals, automotive, and finance. 

    The total value at risk for these sectors might be between $300 billion and $700 billion (to be cautious). 


    Chemicals may benefit from quantum computing for R&D, manufacturing, and supply-chain optimization. 

    • Consider how quantum computing may be utilized to enhance catalyst designs in the manufacturing process. 
    • New and improved catalysts, for example, could allow existing production processes to save energy—a single catalyst can increase efficiency by up to 15%—and innovative catalysts could allow for the replacement of petrochemicals with more sustainable feedstocks or the breakdown of carbon for CO2 usage. 

    A realistic 5 to 10% efficiency boost in the chemicals sector, which spends $800 billion on production each year (half of which depends on catalysis), would result in a $20 billion to $40 billion gain in value. 


    Quantum computing has the potential to improve the biopharmaceutical industry's research and development of molecular structures, as well as providing value in manufacturing and farther down the value chain. 

    • New medications, for example, cost an average of $2 billion and take more than 10 years to reach the market once they are discovered in R&D. 
    • Quantum computing has the potential to make R&D more quicker, more focused, and accurate by reducing the reliance on trial and error in target identification, drug design, and toxicity assessment. 
    • A shorter R&D timetable might help deliver medications to the correct patients sooner and more efficiently—in other words, it would enhance the quality of life of more people. 
    • Quantum computing might also improve production, logistics, and the supply chain. 

    While it's difficult to predict how much revenue or patient impact such advancements will have, in a $1.5 trillion industry with average EBIT margins of 16 percent (by our calculations), even a 1 to 5% revenue increase would result in $15 billion to $75 billion in additional revenue and $2 billion to $12 billion in EBIT. 


    Quantum-computing applications in banking remain a ways off, and the benefits of any short-term applications are speculative. 

    • However, I feel that portfolio and risk management are the most potential applications of quantum computing in finance. 
    • Quantum-optimized loan portfolios that concentrate on collateral, for example, might let lenders to enhance their services by decreasing interest rates and freeing up money. 

    Although it is too early—and complicated—to evaluate the value potential of quantum computing–enhanced collateral management, the worldwide loan industry is estimated to be $6.9 trillion in 2021, implying that quantum optimization might have a substantial influence.


    Quantum computing can help the automotive sector with R&D, product design, supply-chain management, manufacturing, mobility, and traffic management. 

    • By improving features such as route planning in complicated multirobot processes (the path a robot travels to perform a job), such as welding, gluing, and painting, the technology might, for example, reduce manufacturing process–related costs and cut cycle times. 

    Even a 2% to 5% increase in efficiency might provide $10 billion to $25 billion in annual value in an industry that spends $500 billion on manufacturing expenditures. 

    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

    You may also want to read more about Quantum Computing here.

    Quantum Computing - Enter Quantinuum!

    Honeywell and quantum software company Cambridge Quantum have finalized a transaction in which Honeywell's Quantum Solutions branch was split off and combined with Cambridge Quantum to become Quantinuum. 

    The agreement, which was revealed around six months ago, helped to stoke interest in quantum-related investment, IPOs, and acquisitions. 

    We'll have to wait and watch what happens once Honeywell sends Quantinuum out into the world with up to $300 million in cash. 

    Q-CTRL, a company that focuses on quantum computing control and software solutions, has announced a $25 million fundraising round led by Airbus Ventures and other investors. 

    Airbus' involvement is unsurprising, given the aerospace and military industries provide some near-term commercial prospects for quantum computing applications. 

    Quantum spin liquids are a type of magnet matter with spinning electrons that, when frozen, becomes a "fluctuating" solid, according to a team of Harvard-led researchers. 

    They appear to have nothing to do with liquid as we know it, but are a form of magnet matter with spinning electrons that, when frozen, becomes a "fluctuating" solid. 

    This might lead to more durable qubits. 

    This week, Google AI highlighted a recent experiment with time crystals. 

    A time crystal includes layers of atoms in an oscillating pattern "made in time," while seeming like something comic book heroes could use to travel around the multiverse. 

    Google's Sycamore quantum processor was used to prove that these time crystals may be seen. 

    According to a blog post, "observing a time crystal reveals how quantum computers might be utilized to examine unique physical phenomena that have perplexed scientists for years." 

    "Moving from theory to observation is a fundamental step that forms the basis of each scientific breakthrough. 

    This kind of research opens the door to a slew of new experiments, not only in physics, but potentially in a variety of other domains as well..." 

    Finland has officially entered the space race for quantum computing. 

    Quantum computing start-up and Finland's VTT Technical Research Centre The country's first operational 5-qubit quantum computer, according to IQM, is up and running. 

    Controlling Quantum Coherence

    One of the first basic quantum calculations utilizing individual molecules was accomplished in 1998 by researchers including Mark Kubinec of UC Berkeley. 

    They utilized radio wave pulses to flip the spins of two nuclei in a molecule, with each spin's "up" or "down" orientation storing information in the same way as a "0" or "1" state in a traditional data bit would. 

    The combined orientation of the two nuclei—that is, the molecule's quantum state—could only be maintained for short durations in carefully calibrated settings in the early days of quantum computers. 

    In other words, the system's coherence was soon destroyed. 

    Controlling quantum coherence is the last piece of the scalable quantum computer puzzle. 

    Researchers are now working on novel methods to generate and maintain quantum coherence. 

    As a result, ultra-sensitive measurement and information processing equipment will be able to operate in ambient or even severe circumstances. 

    Joel Moore, a senior faculty scientist at Berkeley Lab and a professor at UC Berkeley, received funding from the Department of Energy in 2018 to establish and lead an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) – the Center for Novel Pathways to Quantum Coherence in Materials (NPQC) – to further those efforts. 

    "The EFRCs are a critical tool for DOE because they allow targeted inter-institutional partnerships to make fast progress on cutting-edge scientific issues that are beyond the reach of individual scientists," Moore said. 

    Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley, UC Santa Barbara, Argonne National Laboratory, and Columbia University scientists are leading the way in understanding and manipulating coherence in a range of solid-state systems via the NPQC. 

    Their three-pronged strategy focuses on creating new quantum sensing platforms, building two-dimensional materials that host complex quantum states, and investigating methods to precisely regulate a material's electrical and magnetic characteristics via quantum processes. 

    The materials science community has the key to solving these issues. 

    Developing the capacity to control coherence in real-world settings requires a thorough knowledge of the materials that might be used to create alternative quantum bit (or "qubit"), sensing, or optical technologies. 

    Further advances that will contribute to additional DOE expenditures throughout the Office of Science are based on basic findings. 

    As the initiative approaches its fourth year, numerous scientific discoveries are setting the foundation for quantum information science advancements. 

    Many of NPQC's accomplishments so far have been centered on quantum platforms based on particular faults in a material's structure known as spin defects. 

    With the appropriate crystal backdrop, a spin defect may approach complete quantum coherence while also improving resilience and functionality. 

    These flaws may be exploited to create high-precision sensor systems. 

    Each spin defect reacts to minute changes in the environment, and coherent groups of defects may reach remarkable precision and accuracy. 

    However, it's difficult to grasp how coherence develops in a system with multiple spins that interact with one another. 

    To address this difficulty, NPQC scientists are turning to diamond, a common material that has shown to be excellent for quantum sensing. 

    Each carbon atom in a diamond's crystal structure is linked to four other carbon atoms in nature. 

    When one carbon atom is swapped with another or deleted entirely as the diamond's crystal structure develops, the resultant defect may act as an atomic system with a well-defined spin—an inherent type of angular momentum carried by electrons or other subatomic particles. 

    Certain imperfections in diamond, like these particles, may have an orientation, or polarization, that is either "spin-up" or "spin-down." 

    Norman Yao, a Berkeley Lab faculty scientist and an associate professor of physics at UC Berkeley, and his colleagues developed a 3D system with spins distributed across the volume by designing several distinct spin defects into a diamond lattice. 

    The researchers used that setup to create a method for probing the "motion" of spin polarization at very small length scales. 

    The researchers discovered that spin travels about in the quantum mechanical system in a similar manner as dye moves in a liquid, using a combination of experimental methods. 

    As recently reported in the journal Nature, learning from dyes has shown to be a viable route toward comprehending quantum coherence. 

    The multi-defect system not only offers a strong classical framework for understanding quantum dynamics, but it also provides an experimental platform for investigating how coherence works. 

    The NPQC platform offers "a particularly controlled example of the interplay between disorder, long-ranged dipolar interactions between spins, and quantum coherence," according to Moore, the NPQC director and a member of the team who has previously researched various types of quantum dynamics.


    The coherence periods of such spin defects are highly dependent on their immediate surroundings. 

    Creating and mapping the strain sensitivity in the structure around individual flaws in diamond and other materials has been the focus of several NPQC discoveries. 

    This may show how to manufacture flaws in 3D and 2D materials with the longest feasible coherence durations. 

    But how could changes in the defect's coherence be related to changes imposed by pressures on the material itself? 

    To find out, NPQC scientists are working on a method for generating distorted regions in a host crystal and measuring strain. 

    "If you think of atoms in a lattice as a box spring, you get various outcomes depending on how you press on them," said Martin Holt, a principle scientist at NPQC and group leader in electron and X-ray microscopy at Argonne National Laboratory. 

    He and his colleagues provide a direct picture of the distorted regions in a host crystal using the Advanced Photon Source and the Center for Nanoscale Materials, both user facilities at Argonne National Laboratory. 

    Until recently, the direction of a defect in a sample was largely random. 

    The pictures show which orientations are the most sensitive, indicating that high-pressure quantum sensing is a viable option. 

    "It's amazing how you can take something as precious as a diamond and turn it into something useful. 

    It's fantastic to have something that's simple enough to grasp fundamental physics yet sophisticated enough to perform advanced physics "Holt said. 

    Another aim of this study is to be able to transmit a quantum state, such as a defect in diamond, from one place to another utilizing electrons in a coherent manner. 

    Special quantum wires that emerge in atomically thin layers of certain materials are studied by NPQC experts at Berkeley Lab and Argonne Lab. 

    The group headed by Feng Wang, a Berkeley Lab faculty senior scientist and UC Berkeley professor, and leader of NPQC's work in atomically thin materials, found superconductivity in one of these systems, a triple layer of carbon sheets. 

    "The fact that the same materials may provide both protected one-dimensional conduction and superconductivity offers up some new options for preserving and transmitting quantum coherence," Wang said of the research, which was published in Nature in 2019. 

    Multi-defect systems are essential for more than just basic science. 

    • They have the potential to be transformational technologies as well. 
    • NPQC researchers are investigating how spin defects may be utilized to regulate the material's electrical and magnetic characteristics in new two-dimensional materials that are opening the way for ultra-fast electronics and ultra-stable sensors. 

    Recent discoveries have thrown up some unexpected results. 

    According to Peter Fischer, a senior scientist and division deputy at Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division, 

    • "Fundamental knowledge of nanoscale magnetic materials and their applications in spintronics has already ushered in massive changes in magnetic storage and sensor technology. 
    • Quantum coherence in magnetic materials may be the next step toward low-power devices, according to researchers."

    The magnetic characteristics of a material are solely determined by the alignment of spins in neighboring atoms. 

    Antiferromagnets contain neighboring spins that point in opposing directions and essentially cancel each other out, unlike the perfectly aligned spins in a normal refrigerator magnet or the magnets employed in traditional data storage. 

    • Antiferromagnets, as a consequence, do not "act" magnetically and are highly resistant to external perturbations. 
    • Researchers have been looking for methods to utilize them in spin-based electronics, where information is carried by spin rather than charge, for a long time. 

    Finding a method to alter spin orientation while maintaining coherence is crucial. 

    In 2019, NPQC researchers led by James Analytis, a Berkeley Lab faculty scientist and associate professor of physics at UC Berkeley, and postdoc Eran Maniv discovered that applying a small, single pulse of electrical current to tiny antiferromagnet flakes caused the spins to rotate and "switch" their orientation. 

    As a consequence, the characteristics of the material may be fine-tuned very fast and accurately. 

    • "More experimental observations and some theoretical modeling will be required to understand the mechanics underlying this," Maniv added. 
    • "New materials may be able to provide light on how it works. This is the start of a new area of study.
    • The researchers are now attempting to identify the precise process that causes the switching in materials produced and described at Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry.

    Recent research published in Science Advances and Nature Physics suggests that fine-tuning flaws in a layered material may offer a dependable way to regulate the spin pattern in new device platforms. 

    Moore, the NPQC leader, stated, "This is a wonderful illustration of how having numerous flaws allows us to stabilize a switchable magnetic structure." 

    • NPQC will expand on this year's accomplishments in its second year of existence. 
    • Exploring how numerous flaws interact in two-dimensional materials, as well as researching novel types of one-dimensional structures that may emerge, are among the objectives. 
    • These lower-dimensional structures may be used as sensors to detect the smallest-scale characteristics of other materials. 

    Focusing on how electric currents may control spin-derived magnetic characteristics will also help to bridge the gap between basic research and applied technology. 

    Rapid success on these projects requires a unique blend of methods and experience that can only be developed in a big collaborative setting. 

    "You don't build capabilities in a vacuum," Holt said. 

    "The NPQC creates a dynamic research environment that propels science forward while also harnessing the work of each lab or site." 

    Meanwhile, the research center offers a one-of-a-kind education at the cutting edge of science, as well as chances to train the scientific staff that will drive the future quantum industry. 

    The NPQC introduces a new set of questions and objectives to the study of quantum materials' fundamental physics. 

    Moore said,  

    • "The behavior of electrons in solids is governed by quantum mechanics, and this behavior provides the foundation for most of the contemporary technology we take for granted
    • However, we are now at the start of the second quantum revolution, in which characteristics such as coherence take center stage, and knowing how to improve these features offers up a new set of material-related issues for us to solve."

    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

    You may also want to read more about Quantum Computing here.

    Quantum Computing Application To Detect Alien Life

    While quantum computing may take many years to become commonplace in everyday life, the technology has already been enlisted to aid in the hunt for life in outer space. 

    Zapata Computing, a quantum software firm, is collaborating with the University of Hull in the United Kingdom on research to assess Zapata's Orquestra quantum workflow platform, which will be used to improve a quantum application intended to identify signs of life in outer space. 

    The assessment is not a controlled demonstration of characteristics, according to Dr David Benoit, Senior Lecturer in Molecular Physics and Astrochemistry at the University of Hull, but rather a study using real-world data. 

    He said,

     "We're looking at how Orquestra works in realistic processes that utilize quantum computing to give typical real-life data." 

    "Rather than a demonstration of skills, we're looking for actual usable data in this endeavor." 

    Before the team releases an analysis of the study, the assessment will run for eight weeks. 

    According to the parties, this will be the first of many partnerships between Zapata and the University of Hull for quantum astrophysics applications. 

    The announcement comes as many quantum computing behemoths, including Google, IBM, Amazon, and Honeywell, were scheduled to attend a White House conference sponsored by the Biden administration to explore developing quantum computing applications. 

    In certain instances, academics have resorted to quantum computing to finish tasks that would take too long for traditional computers to complete, and Benoit said the University of Hull is in a similar position. 

    "The tests envisioned are still something that a traditional computer can perform," he said, "but, the computing time needed to get the answer has a factorial scale, meaning that bigger applications are likely to take days, months, or years to complete" (along with a very large amount of memory). 

    The quantum equivalent is capable of solving such issues in a sub-factorial way (possibly quartic scaling), but this does not necessarily imply that it is quicker for all systems; rather, it means that the computing effort is significantly decreased for big systems. 

    We're looking for a scalable method to do precise computations in our application, and quantum computers can help us achieve that. 

    What is the scope of the job at hand? 

    In 2016, MIT researchers proposed a list of more than 14,000 chemicals that may reveal indications of life in the atmospheres of far-away exoplanets, according to a statement from Zapata. 

    However, nothing is presently understood about how these molecules vibrate and spin in response to neighboring stars' infrared light. 

    Using new computer models of molecule rotations and vibrations, the University of Hull is attempting to create a library of observable biological fingerprints. 

    Though quantum computing models have challenges in fault tolerance and error correction, Benoit claims that researchers are unconcerned about the performance of so-called Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) devices. 

    "We consider the fact that the findings will be noisy as a beneficial thing since our approach really utilizes the statistical character of the noise/errors to try to get an accurate answer," he added. 

    "Clearly, the better the mistake correction or the quieter the equipment, the better the result." 

    However, utilizing Orquestra allows us to possibly switch platforms without having to re-implement significant portions of the code, which means we can easily compute with better hardware as it becomes available." 

    Orquestra will enable researchers "produce important insights" from NISQ devices, according to Benoit, and researchers will be able to "create applications that utilize these NISQ devices today with the potential to exploit the more powerful quantum devices of the future." 

    As a consequence, scientists should be able to do "very precise estimates of the fundamental variable determining atom-atom interactions — electrical correlation," which may enhance their capacity to identify the building elements of life in space. This is critical because even basic molecules like oxygen or nitrogen have complicated interactions that require very precise computations."

    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

    You may also want to read more about Quantum Computing here.

    Potential of Quantum Computing Applications

    Despite the threat that the existence of a large-scale quantum computer (an FTQC) poses to information security, the ability of intermediate-scale (NISQ) processors to provide unprecedented computing power in the near future opens up a wide opportunity space, especially for critical Defense Department applications and the Defense technology edge. 

    The current availability of NISQ processors has drastically changed the development route for quantum applications. 

    As a result, a heuristics-driven strategy has been developed, allowing for significantly greater engagement and industry involvement. 

    Previously, quantum algorithm research was mostly focused on a far-off FTQC future, and determining the value of a quantum application needed extremely specialized mathematical abilities. 

    We believe that in the not-too-distant future, this will no longer be essential for quantum advantage to be practicable. 

    As a result, it will be critical, particularly the Defense Department and other agencies, to have access to NISQ devices, which we anticipate will enable for the development of early mission-oriented applications. 

    While NISQ processors do not pose a danger to communications security in and of itself, this recently obtained intermediate regime permits quantum hardware and software development to be merged under the ‘quantum advantage' regime for the first time, potentially speeding up progress. 

    This emphasizes the security apparatus's requirement for a self-contained NISQ capability.

    What Is Artificial General Intelligence?

    Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is defined as the software representation of generalized human cognitive capacities that enables the ...