Showing posts with label Quantum simulation. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Quantum simulation. Show all posts

Quantum Computing - Discovery Of Unexpected Features In Ta2NiSe5, A Complicated Quantum Material.


A recent research discloses previously unknown features in Ta2NiSe5, a complicated quantum material. 

These results, which were made possible by a new approach pioneered at Penn, have implications for the development of future quantum devices and applications. 

This study, which was published in Science Advances, was directed by professor Ritesh Agarwal and done by graduate student Harshvardhan Jog in conjunction with Penn's Eugene Mele and Luminita Harnagea of the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research. (Find Research Paper Attached Below)

While progress has been made in the area of quantum information science in recent years, quantum computers are still in their infancy. 

  • Because present platforms are not built to enable many qubits to "speak" to one another, one problem is the ability to only employ a minimal number of "qubits," the unit that executes operations in a quantum computer. 
  • Materials must be efficient at quantum entanglement, which happens when the states of qubits stay connected regardless of their distance from one another, as well as coherence, or when a system can sustain this entanglement, in order to meet this challenge. 

Jog investigated Ta2NiSe5, a material system with high electrical correlation, which makes it suitable for quantum devices. 

Strong electronic correlation refers to the relationship between a material's atomic structure and its electronic characteristics, as well as the strong contact between electrons. 

To investigate Ta2NiSe5, Jog modified an Agarwal lab method known as the circular photogalvanic effect, in which light is made to convey an electric field and may be utilized to examine various material characteristics. 

This approach, which has been developed and refined over many years, has revealed information about materials such as silicon and Weyl semimetals in ways that are not achievable with traditional physics and materials science research. 

But, as Agarwal points out, this method has only been used in materials without inversion symmetry, whereas Ta2NiSe5 does. 

Jog "wanted to see if this technique could be used to study materials with inversion symmetry that, from a conventional sense, should not be producing this response," says Agarwal. 

Jog and Agarwal employed a modified version of the circular photogalvanic effect after connecting with Harnagea to collect high-quality Ta2NiSe5 samples and were startled to observe that a signal was created. 

They collaborated with Mele to build a hypothesis that may help explain these surprising findings after performing more research to assure that this was not a mistake or an experimental artifact. 

The difficulty in creating a theory, according to Mele, was that what was anticipated about the symmetry of Ta2NiSe5 did not match the experimental data. 

They were then able to offer an explanation for these results after discovering a prior theoretical work that revealed the symmetry was lower than what was expected. 

"We recognized that if there was a low-temperature phase when the system spontaneously shears, that would do it," Mele adds. 

The researchers discovered that this material had broken symmetry by integrating their experience from both experiment and theory, which was critical to the project's success. This result has major implications for the use of this and other materials in future devices. 

This is due to the fact that symmetry is essential for categorizing phases of matter and, eventually, determining their downstream qualities. 

These findings may also be used to uncover and describe comparable features in other kinds of materials. 

We now have a technology that can detect even the most minute symmetry breaks in crystalline materials. 

Symmetries must be considered in order to comprehend any complicated subject since they have enormous ramifications.

While there is still a "far way to go" before Ta2NiSe5 can be used in quantum devices, the researchers are already working to better understand this phenomena. 

In the lab, Jog and Agarwal are interested in searching for possible topological qualities in extra energy levels inside Ta2NiSe5, as well as utilizing the circular photogalvanic approach to look at other associated systems to see if they have comparable properties. 

Mele is investigating how often this phenomenon is in various material systems and generating recommendations for new materials for experimentalists to investigate. 

"What we're seeing here is a reaction that shouldn't happen but does in this situation," Mele adds. 

"Expanding the area of structures available to you, where you may activate these effects that are ostensibly disallowed, is critical. It's not the first time something has occurred in spectroscopy, but it's always intriguing when it occurs." 

This work not only introduces the research community to a new tool for studying complex crystals, but it also sheds light on the types of materials that can provide two key features, entanglement and macroscopic coherence, which are critical for future quantum applications ranging from medical diagnostics to low-power electronics and sensors. 

"The long-term aim, and one of the most important goals in condensed matter physics," adds Agarwal, "is to be able to comprehend these highly entangled states of matter because these materials can conduct a lot of intricate modeling." "

It's possible that if we can figure out how to comprehend these systems, they'll become natural platforms for large-scale quantum simulation."


Harshvardhan Jog et al, Exchange coupling–mediated broken symmetries in Ta 2 NiSe 5 revealed from quadrupolar circular photogalvanic effect, Science Advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abl9020

Jog, H., Harnagea, L., Mele, E. and Agarwal, R., 2021. Circular photogalvanic effect in inversion symmetric crystal: the case of ferro-rotational order in Ta 2 NiSe 5. Bulletin of the American Physical Society66.

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan.

You may also want to read more about Quantum Computing here.

Quantum Computing - Areas Of Application.


Quantum simulation, quantum linear algebra for AI and machine learning, quantum optimization and search, and quantum factorization are the four most well-known application cases. 

I go through them in detail in this paper, as well as issues leaders should think about when evaluating prospective use cases. 

I concentrate on prospective applications in a few areas that, according to studies, might profit the most in the near term from the technology: medicines, chemicals, automotive, and finance. 

The total value at risk for these sectors might be between $300 billion and $700 billion (to be cautious). 


Chemicals may benefit from quantum computing for R&D, manufacturing, and supply-chain optimization. 

  • Consider how quantum computing may be utilized to enhance catalyst designs in the manufacturing process. 
  • New and improved catalysts, for example, could allow existing production processes to save energy—a single catalyst can increase efficiency by up to 15%—and innovative catalysts could allow for the replacement of petrochemicals with more sustainable feedstocks or the breakdown of carbon for CO2 usage. 

A realistic 5 to 10% efficiency boost in the chemicals sector, which spends $800 billion on production each year (half of which depends on catalysis), would result in a $20 billion to $40 billion gain in value. 


Quantum computing has the potential to improve the biopharmaceutical industry's research and development of molecular structures, as well as providing value in manufacturing and farther down the value chain. 

  • New medications, for example, cost an average of $2 billion and take more than 10 years to reach the market once they are discovered in R&D. 
  • Quantum computing has the potential to make R&D more quicker, more focused, and accurate by reducing the reliance on trial and error in target identification, drug design, and toxicity assessment. 
  • A shorter R&D timetable might help deliver medications to the correct patients sooner and more efficiently—in other words, it would enhance the quality of life of more people. 
  • Quantum computing might also improve production, logistics, and the supply chain. 

While it's difficult to predict how much revenue or patient impact such advancements will have, in a $1.5 trillion industry with average EBIT margins of 16 percent (by our calculations), even a 1 to 5% revenue increase would result in $15 billion to $75 billion in additional revenue and $2 billion to $12 billion in EBIT. 


Quantum-computing applications in banking remain a ways off, and the benefits of any short-term applications are speculative. 

  • However, I feel that portfolio and risk management are the most potential applications of quantum computing in finance. 
  • Quantum-optimized loan portfolios that concentrate on collateral, for example, might let lenders to enhance their services by decreasing interest rates and freeing up money. 

Although it is too early—and complicated—to evaluate the value potential of quantum computing–enhanced collateral management, the worldwide loan industry is estimated to be $6.9 trillion in 2021, implying that quantum optimization might have a substantial influence.


Quantum computing can help the automotive sector with R&D, product design, supply-chain management, manufacturing, mobility, and traffic management. 

  • By improving features such as route planning in complicated multirobot processes (the path a robot travels to perform a job), such as welding, gluing, and painting, the technology might, for example, reduce manufacturing process–related costs and cut cycle times. 

Even a 2% to 5% increase in efficiency might provide $10 billion to $25 billion in annual value in an industry that spends $500 billion on manufacturing expenditures. 

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

You may also want to read more about Quantum Computing here.

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