LANDSAT-9: NASA's Latest Earth Observation Satellite In Orbit.

Landsat 9, a NASA satellite designed to monitor the Earth's land surface, successfully launched from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California at 2:12 p.m. EDT Monday, 27th Sept., 2021. 

Landsat 9 was launched from Vandenberg's Space Launch Complex 3E on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket as part of a cooperative mission with the United States Geological Survey (USGS). 

Around 83 minutes after launch, the Svalbard satellite-monitoring ground station in Norway received signals from the spacecraft. 

As it approaches its ultimate orbital height of 438 miles, Landsat 9 is operating as anticipated (705 kilometers). 

NASA Administrator Bill Nelson said, "NASA utilizes the unique assets of our own unparalleled fleet, as well as the equipment of other countries, to study our own planet and its climatic systems." 

“Landsat 9 will take this historic and important worldwide initiative to the next level, with a 50-year data bank to build on. We are excited to collaborate with our colleagues at the USGS and the Department of the Interior on Landsat Next again, since we never stop striving to better understand our planet.” 

Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland said, "Today's successful launch is a major milestone in the nearly 50-year joint partnership between USGS and NASA, who have partnered for decades to collect valuable scientific information and use that data to shape policy with the utmost scientific integrity." 

Landsat 9 will offer data and images to assist make science-based choices on critical problems such as: 

    1. water usage, 
    2. wildfire effects, 
    3. coral reef degradation, 
    4. glacier and ice-shelf retreat, 
    5. and tropical deforestation as the consequences of the climate crisis increase in the United States and across the world. 

In 1972, the first Landsat satellite was launched. 

Since then, NASA has maintained a Landsat satellite in orbit to gather pictures of the physical stuff that covers our planet's surface, as well as changes in land use. 

Researchers may use these pictures to track agricultural production, forest size and health, water quality, coral reef ecosystem health, and glacier movements, among other things. 

Karen St. Germain, head of NASA's Earth Science Division in Washington, stated, "The Landsat mission is unlike any other." 

“Landsat satellites have been orbiting our globe for almost 50 years, giving an unmatched record of how its surface has altered across timeframes ranging from days to decades. 

We've been able to offer continuous and timely data for customers ranging from farmers to resource managers and scientists because to our collaboration with the USGS. 

In a changing environment, this data may help us comprehend, forecast, and prepare for the future.”

In orbit, Landsat 9 joins its sister spacecraft, Landsat 8. 

Every eight days, the two satellites will work together to gather pictures covering the whole globe. 

“When it comes to monitoring our changing globe, Landsat 9 will be our new eyes in the sky,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA's assistant administrator for science. 

By collaborating with other Landsat satellites and our European Space Agency colleagues who run the Sentintel-2 satellites, we're obtaining a more complete view of Earth than ever before. 

We'll get observations of every given location on our globe every two days thanks to these satellites cooperating in space. 

This is critical for monitoring things like crop growth and assisting decision-makers in monitoring Earth's general health and natural resources.” 

The sensors on board Landsat 9 – the Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 (TIRS-2) – measure 11 wavelengths of light reflected or radiated off Earth's surface, including visible and non-visible wavelengths. 

These sensors will record sights over a 115-mile span as the satellite circles (185 kilometers). 

In these pictures, each pixel represents a 98-foot (30-meter) square, about the size of a baseball infield. 

Resource managers will be able to identify most agricultural fields in the United States at that resolution. 

“Launches are always thrilling, and today was no exception,” NASA Landsat 9 project scientist Jeff Masek said. 

“However, the greatest part for me as a scientist will be when the satellite begins providing the data that people have been waiting for, further cementing Landsat's legendary reputation among data users.”

The USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, analyzes and stores data from the sensors, adding it to the five decades of Landsat data. 

Since its debut in 2008, Landsat pictures and associated data have received over 100 million downloads thanks to this strategy. 

The Landsat 9 mission is overseen by NASA. 

The TIRS-2 instrument was also developed and tested at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. 

The mission was launched by NASA's Launch Services Program, which is headquartered at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. 

The mission will be operated by EROS, which will also handle the ground system and maintain the Landsat archive. 

The OLI-2 instrument was developed and tested by Ball Aerospace in Boulder, Colorado. 

The launch of Landsat 9 will be carried out by United Launch Alliance. 

The Landsat 9 satellite was constructed, fitted with sensors, and tested by Northrop Grumman in Gilbert, Arizona. 

For additional information about Landsat 9, go to:

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

You may also want to read more about space based systems here.

Meet VIPER, NASA's Lunar Ice Hunter Rover!


NASA chooses a Moon location for an ice-hunting rover. 

NASA is hoping that the robot will confirm the existence of water ice under the surface, which may be turned into rocket fuel for trips to Mars in the future. 

NASA said on Monday that in 2023, it will deploy an ice-seeking rover in the Nobile Crater, an area of the Moon's south pole. 

The space agency is hoping that the robot will confirm the existence of water ice under the surface, which may one day be turned into rocket fuel for trips to Mars and beyond. 

"Nobile Crater is an impact crater near the south pole that formed as a result of a collision with another smaller celestial objects," NASA's planetary science division director Lori Glaze told reporters. 

It's one of the coldest places in the solar system, and it's only been studied from afar using instruments from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite. 

Glazer said, "The rover will get up up and personal with the lunar dirt, even digging several feet deep." The robot is known as the VIPER (Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover). 

It has the proportions of a golf cart – five feet by five feet by eight feet (1.5 meters by 1.5 meters by 2.5 meters) – and resembles droids from Star Wars. 

It is 950 pounds in weight (430 kilograms). VIPER, unlike rovers on Mars, can be controlled in near real time because to its close proximity to Earth - just around 200,000 miles (300,000 kilometers) or 1.3 light seconds. 

The rover is also quicker, reaching a maximum speed of 0.5 mph (0.8 kph). 

VIPER is a solar-powered robot that has a 50-hour battery, can endure severe temperatures, and can "crab walk" sideways to keep its panels facing toward the Sun to keep charging. 

The VIPER crew aims to discover how frozen water got to the Moon in the first place, how it stayed frozen for billions of years, how it escapes, and where it goes now in terms of the mission's scientific objectives. 

Artemis is America's plan to return people to the Moon, and this mission is part of it. 

The first crewed mission is scheduled for 2024, although it will most likely take occur much later due to delays in many areas.

The ice-hunting Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover (VIPER) will land near the moon's south pole, just west of Nobile Crater (Sept. 20). 

VIPER will go to the moon in late 2023 on Griffin, a lander developed by Pittsburgh-based Astrobotic and launched atop a SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket. 

In a statement, Daniel Andrews, VIPER project manager at NASA's Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, stated, "Selecting a landing location for VIPER is an exciting and significant choice for all of us." 

Andrews said, "Years of research have gone into assessing the arctic area VIPER will investigate." "VIPER is venturing into unknown terrain, guided by science, in order to test theories and disclose crucial data for future human space travel." 

VIPER is a key component of NASA's Artemis program, which seeks to create a long-term, sustainable human presence on and around the moon by the end of the next decade. 

According to NASA experts, achieving this objective would require significant utilization of lunar resources, particularly water ice. 

According to observations by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and other spacecraft, the moon has a lot of water ice, particularly towards its poles in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). 

VIPER is intended to validate such research by informing scientists about how much ice is really there and how accessible it is to humans. 

The Nobile site is 36 square miles in size (93 square kilometers). 

The solar-powered VIPER, which weighs 950 pounds (450 kilograms), will measure and describe the water ice under its wheels at various sites throughout Nobile, including PSRs, which are among the coldest places in the solar system. 

VIPER will collect samples from up to 3.3 feet (1 meter) down over the period of at least 100 Earth days, utilizing three spectrometers and a drill. 

"The data VIPER returns will provide lunar scientists around the world with more insight into our moon's cosmic origin, evolution, and history, and it will also help inform future Artemis missions to the moon and beyond by allowing us to better understand the lunar environment in these previously unexplored areas hundreds of thousands of miles away," Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA's Science Mission Directorate, said. 

The VIPER team had chosen four candidate landing locations for the four-wheeled robot near the lunar south pole. 

VIPER project scientist Tony Colaprete of NASA Ames stated during a press briefing today that the other three were a region outside Haworth Crater, a ridgeline extending from Shackleton Crater, and a location near Shoemaker Crater. 

According to Colaprete, all four candidate locations are interesting and seem to be acceptable both scientifically and logistically. 

"Ultimately, it came down to the overall number of working days," he stated at a press conference today, adding that a "working day" is one during which the rover has enough sunlight to function while still being able to communicate with Earth. 

(VIPER's connection with its handlers will be direct; the robot will not utilize a relay satellite.) 

"To complete our mission objectives, we'll need at least 10 or so days," Colaprete added. "At Nobile, we get 40 or more, which is much more than any of these other locations." 

According to NASA officials, the entire cost of VIPER's mission will be about $660 million, including $433.5 million for mission development and operations and $226.5 million for the delivery contract with Astrobotic, which includes the cost of launch. 

NASA's Commercial Lunar Payload Services program was used to sign the delivery contract. 

While VIPER will be NASA's first unmanned rover to land on the moon, it will not be the agency's first wheeled lunar vehicle of any kind: during the last three Apollo missions in 1971 and 1972, NASA deployed astronaut-driven moon buggies.

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan 

You may also want to read more about Space Exploration, Space Missions and Systems here.

What Are The Applications Of Solar Energy?

Solar energy is the most plentiful energy resource on the planet. 

The energy absorbed by the Earth from the sun in one hour is about equivalent to the energy needed for one year of human activity. 

Solar energy is widely used for power production, as previously stated. 

Solar technologies, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA), have the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the power sector by 14% by 2050, based on the BLUE Map scenario. 

Solar energy may be utilized for more than just power production; it can also be used for heating and desalination. 

Solar energy's primary benefits are its widespread availability and accessibility, but its intermittency makes prediction difficult. 

Solar energy may be harvested using a variety of methods and converted into the energy kinds needed. 

Solar Energy Production.

PV panels are used to convert solar irradiation directly into energy. 

Special kinds of semiconductors are utilized in PV cells. 

The energy for electron transport is provided by sun irradiation on the semiconductor, which results in an electrical current . 

Although several novel technologies, like as organic cells, are being explored, the most common kinds of PV technologies are crystalline and thin film. 

The IEA  estimates that crystalline silicone and thin film technologies account for 85 percent 90 percent and 10 percent 15 percent of the global PV cell market, respectively. 

Table 1.1 shows the efficiencies of PV cells depending on their technology. 

PV cell efficiencies are poor, as shown in Table 1.1; as a result, the produced power for each surface area is often low or insufficient. 

Concentrators may be used in conjunction with PV cells to solve this issue. 

Solar radiation is focused using optical instruments in this arrangement, increasing the amount of energy delivered to a particular region. 

When using concentrators, it is essential to lower the temperature of the PV cells since their performance degrades at high temperatures. 

Heat systems are combined with PV cells for cooling in such methods, as shown, by harvesting the absorbed thermal energy. 

The recovered thermal energy is sometimes sold as a byproduct. 

Temperature, solar irradiation, dust buildup, shadowing, and soiling of PV panels all influence the performance of PV cells in producing energy. 

The amount of energy generated by a PV cell is highly dependent on solar irradiation (solar power per unit of area). 

More energy is available for conversion to electricity when solar irradiation rises. 

In addition to solar irradiation, the temperature of the PV cell has an effect on the output power since it affects the cell's efficiency. 

Higher efficiency is usually achieved by lowering the cell's temperature. 

Because of the PV cell's significance in producing energy, many methods for thermal management of PV cells exist, including using water flow, phase change materials (PCMs), and heat pipes. 

The presence of grit or dust on the surface of PV cells may prevent sunlight from entering the cell, lowering the energy received and, as a result, lowering the output power. 

The dust reduction factor is usually equal to 0.93, which means that the input solar irradiation for a cell is reduced by 7% . 

Spraying water on the surface of PV cells is recommended to combat dirt and dust buildup, and it may also help with temperature management. 

Another unfavorable factor that reduces PV cell performance is shadowing. 

According to certain research, when 5-10% of a solar panel array is shaded, the produced energy may be decreased by up to 80%. 

In addition to direct techniques, certain technologies may be used to convert solar energy to electricity in an indirect manner. 

Solar energy is utilized to power thermal power plants in these technologies. 

Concentrators must be utilized to generate a large amount of thermal energy in a small amount of area. 

Concentrated solar power methods are divided into three categories: linear parabolic collector systems, solar towers, and parabolic dish collectors. 

A linear concentrator with a parabolic cross-sectional form makes up a linear parabolic collector. 

On a single axis, the concentrator's surface follows the path of the sun. 

This concentrator is mounted on a support structure, which keeps it stable and allows it to operate well in adverse circumstances like as wind. 

The received sunlight is concentrated on a tube along the focal point in these concentrators. 

There is a working fluid within the tube that gets heat from focused sun irradiation. 

The reflecting panels of parabolic dishes rotate along two orthogonal axes to follow the sun's path. 

The panels direct the sun's rays toward a receiver at the focal point. 

High-temperature thermal energy is transmitted to the working fluid by using these concentrators. 

Heliostats, or flat-surfaced reflecting panels, are used in solar tower systems to concentrate the sunlight. 

These panels spin on two axes, focusing solar energy on the receiver at the top of the tower, which is situated in the system's center. 

The concentrated solar energy is absorbed by the fluid within the solar receiver, which raises its temperature and pressure. 

To increase efficiency, solar thermal energy systems may be combined with existing thermal power plants. 

In certain gas turbine cycles, solar energy is used to pre-heat the compressed air that enters the combustion chamber, as illustrated below. 

In certain setups, the presence of a thermal energy storage unit may enhance the system's efficiency and allow it to operate at night. 

Solar energy may be utilized alone to generate electricity, in addition to hybrid systems that employ both fossil fuels and solar thermal energy. 

Solar energy is used in these systems to raise the temperature and pressure of air (or another working fluid) to levels suitable for use in a power generating turbine. 

To extract more energy per unit of area, solar concentrators are used. 

Heat recovery may increase the efficiency of these cycles. 

A schematic illustration of a Brayton cycle with heat recovery and intercooling units may be seen here. 

Other concepts, such as utilizing supercritical fluids and merging Brayton cycles with other cycles, such as Rankine cycles, have been used to improve the efficiency of these cycles in addition to heat recovery units. 

The primary thermal input to run the Rankine cycle in these setups comes from the gas turbine's output hot gases. 

These designs often have greater efficiency than basic Brayton cycles. 

Thermostats and air conditioners.

Around 2010, the proportion of energy consumption in the construction industry in global final energy utilization, which refers to final energy consumption by end users, was 35.3 percent. 

Renewable energy systems, particularly solar technology, may be utilized to supply energy for heating and cooling in a variety of industries. 

In order to gather, store, and distribute thermal energy to buildings, renewable-based heating technologies are utilized, while cooling systems are used to provide cooling capacity. 

Solar energy may be utilized to heat a building in a variety of ways, including a Trombe wall, an unglazed transpired solar façade, and a solar chimney. 

Trombe walls are made up of a huge wall, an air duct, and an exterior layer of glass. 

A Trombe wall is shown schematically here. 

The big wall is utilized to collect and store the energy of the sun that flows through the glass in these kinds of systems. 

A part of the absorbed heat is transmitted to the interior space through conductive and convective heat transfer processes. 

Furthermore, cold air enters the channels via a lower vent, is heated, and rises owing to the buoyancy effect before exiting the channel through an upper vent. 

An unglazed transpired solar façade is made out of metal sheet walls having holes in them, which are used to capture solar thermal energy and heat the building. 

A fan is employed to circulate the air flow, as illustrated below. 

A solar chimney works by turning thermal energy into kinetic energy, which is then used to circulate air. 

Other technologies for air heating in buildings, such as solar roofs, are available in addition to these techniques. 

The use of solar thermal energy in buildings is not restricted to air heating; it may also be utilized to heat water. 

In most instances, water is collected using collectors that face the sun. 

Many designs for solar water heating systems have been suggested, with direct and indirect water heating methods being the most common. 

Water passes through a collector and absorbs thermal energy in direct water heating systems, while heat exchangers are used to transmit the thermal energy of the applied collectors in indirect water heating systems. 

Solar energy may be used for cooling. 

In thermally driven cooling processes, solar cooling systems use the absorbed heat from sunshine. 

In these systems, there are two primary processes. 

Thermally powered sorption chillers are utilized in closed cycles to produce chilled water for use in space conditioning facilities. 

Water is often used as a refrigerant in open cycle solar cooling systems, and a desiccant is used as a sorbent for air purification in ventilation technologies. 

One of the most significant benefits of solar cooling systems over alternatives is their naturalness. 

Because the greatest needed cooling demand corresponds with the strongest sun irradiation, using these kinds of systems may reduce peak electrical demands on the electrical network as compared to traditional cooling systems. 

In addition, during cold seasons, solar cooling methods may be used for heating, including water heating. 


The development and use of desalination systems is necessitated by the rising trend in global population and the resulting rise in the demand for consumable freshwater. 

Desalination is a procedure that eliminates salt from salty feed-water, resulting in usable water for drinking and agricultural. 

Thermal and membrane technologies are the most common kinds of desalination systems. 

Around 73 percent of the world's desalination units were based on membrane technology as of the end of 2016, with the other ones being thermal. 

Both directly and indirectly, renewable energy technologies may be used for desalination. 

In general, direct techniques utilize the thermal energy of renewable energy sources for water evaporation and salt removal, while indirect techniques use renewable energy sources to produce the necessary power for membrane technology. 

For desalination plants, solar energy is one of the most appealing renewable energy sources. 

The sun provides the heat needed for saline water evaporation in thermal desalination systems. 

Solar thermal desalination systems that use thermal energy storage units like PCMs can operate at night. 

Despite the fact that using thermal storage to enhance the efficiency of solar thermal desalination units has increased their prices, they are still economically viable for large-scale systems. 

Solar energy may be used for indirect water desalination in addition to thermal desalination devices. 

Membrane-based desalination machines utilize energy produced by PV panels or solar thermal power plants in these kinds of desalination systems.

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

You may also read more about Green Technologies and Renewable Energy Systems here.

What Are Renewable Energy Sources?

As illustrated, global total primary energy consumption has been rising over the past decade. 

As shown below, fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas currently account for the majority of electricity generation. 

However, as a result of concerns about the environmental issues associated with fossil fuels, as well as their finite nature and potential future depletion, renewable energy sources are gradually taking their place. 

Renewable energy sources include wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass, among others. 

Heating, cooling, power production, and desalination are just a few of the uses for them. 

Renewable energy sources play a significant role in meeting global heating and cooling demands, accounting for roughly 10% of total demand in 2016. 

Solar collectors or geothermal heat exchangers may often be used for heating. 

The thermal energy of renewable sources may be used for desalination units in addition to heating. 

The absorbed thermal energy is used in renewable desalination systems to evaporate saline water and produce fresh water. 

Despite the fact that renewable energy sources may be used for a variety of purposes, current advances in renewable energy sources have mostly focused on power production. 

According to the REN21 study, the worldwide capacity of renewable energy power plants increased by 181 GW in 2018. 

Solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, with about 100 GW of installed capacity, represent the largest proportion of worldwide installed renewable energy systems during this time period, followed by wind turbines with about 50 GW. 

Both directly and indirectly, renewable energy technologies may be utilized to generate power. 

PV panels, for example, are used to convert solar energy directly to electricity, while the thermal energy of renewable sources is sometimes transferred to power plants via thermal processes such as the Brayton and Rankine cycles. 

The efficiency of renewable energy systems for electricity generation is determined by a number of factors, including the technology used as well as geographic and environmental conditions.

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

You may also read more about Green Technologies and Renewable Energy Systems here.

Quantum Revolution 2.0 Epilogue - In the year 2050


 Markus, who was born in the year 2020, is sleeping a little longer today. 

His 30th birthday has arrived. 

His fMRT alarm clock interacts with Markus's subconscious by logging into his dream and allowing it to become lucid (with lucid dreams, the dreamer is aware that he is dreaming). 

Markus emerges from the REM period as fresh as possible, according to the system's long-ago calculation of the optimum wake-up time. 

The nanobots in his body monitor the latest developments on potential inflammations, vascular plaques, or cell alterations just before he wakes up. 

The info appears on Markus' nano-retina as soon as he opens his eyes. 

His breakfast consists of a butter croissant and jam, like it does every morning. 

Nanobots have become active once again. 

All unnecessary sugar and fat molecules have been eliminated, and essential vitamins, trace minerals, and dietary fibre have been added in their stead. 

The fact that the croissants still taste as buttery as they did forty years ago may also be attributed to the nanobots' abilities. 

They use the right neuro-signals to activate Markus' taste buds. 

The kitchen is eerily quiet. 

Appliances and materials for the kitchen are no longer required. 

What was formerly a tiny oven that was ideally suited to the size of the roast has now been transformed into a toaster. 

This is made feasible through the use of nanoparticle-based programmable matter. 

Markus puts the almost fat-free butter on his croissant carefully. 

Markus is immediately linked to the internet through his retina implant and a microchip in his brain, which transmits messages customized to his interests straight into his brain. 

Markus's tastes, ranging from his favorite football team to his political beliefs, are better known to the AI running on quantum computers, which has been taught and tailored for him and his personality. 

Because it has kept track of every detail of his life and is constantly running algorithms to improve his well-being. 

The conversation between Markus and his AI is, of course, bidirectional. 

He expresses his desire to learn more about the Middle East conflict via his ideas. 

He instantly gets the necessary information, which is delivered to the proper neurons in his brain through suitable impulses, allowing him to not only see but also smell, taste, and hear the smoke and gunshots. 

He recognized the rainforest scene on the wall as the one that lulled him to sleep the night before. 

The scent of dampness is still in his nose, or rather, in the relevant neurons in his brain's olfactory bulb. 

He likes a beach this morning, so he makes his wish. 

Immediately, a tropical coral reef appears in front of him, complete with ocean noises and scents. 

Perceptions are produced directly in his brain, or rather within him. 

When he uses Brainchat, the new brain-to-brain program, to communicate with his love Iris, his AI informs him that an unauthorized individual is listening in on his quantum communication channel. 

The program gives you the option of changing the encryption or switching to a different channel. 

The news article that has been playing in his head has altered. 

He's now listening in on a debate on the abolition of money. 

The value of ownership has shifted dramatically in recent years. 

There are no longer any rare products worth spending money on. 

With 3D printers, even the most basic materials can be made into anything. 

All desired emotions and sensations may be generated directly in the brain via appropriate neuro-stimulation. 

Representatives of the new socialist movement urge that all software for printing and converting goods be made freely available. 

Alphabet and Dodax (formed in 2029 following the merging of Facebook and Microsoft), the only surviving software firms from the information era in the first 20 years of the twenty-first century, continue to resist. 

However, their cause has long since been abandoned. 

The free market economy has lost its luster. 

Everything that humans need may be found in the form of software. 

All they have to do now is print things out or load the necessary software into the physical devices. 

Previously, software needed the use of specific devices known as computers. 

They were both costly and rigid. 

But 10 years ago, when the technical issue of decoherence of entangled quantum systems had been addressed, quantum computer software was created and immediately integrated into objects, for virtually any type of matter. 

Quantum computers allowed individual atoms in a material combination to be controlled in such a manner that they could be combined to create any energetically feasible shape. 

All that was required was the right software. 

In parliament, the New Socialists, who evolved from the Social Democratic movement in 2041, currently have a two-thirds majority. 

They want to make free access to all software a fundamental right for all citizens, according to their electoral program. 

Alphabet and Dodax would be extinct. 

However, it might not be such a terrible thing, and this is the current debate's tone.

It would be like to the last dinosaurs becoming extinct. 

Markus returns to his passion of creating new animal and plant species via genetic engineering. 

He hasn't had a paid work in years, and most of his pals have also lost their jobs. 

At the press of a button, he has access to almost everything he needs (and, eventually, almost everything). 

Almost everything is taken care of by AI-enabled devices and nanobots. 

There is no longer any need to work for a living. 

Money as a means of trade has lost its significance, and the next generation will struggle to comprehend why it was once so essential. 

Markus shivers as he recalls previous times when he had to consider if he could afford to purchase the newest model of electric vehicle and struggled to repay his debts. 

As he leans over his little CRISPR gadget, he wonders if his brain chip, which links him to the central AI, was designed to have such a strong dislike for previous eras. 

But then he grins to himself and returns his attention to the orange color of the moss he intends to use to cover his walls.

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

You may also want to read more about Quantum Computing here.

What Is Artificial General Intelligence?

Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is defined as the software representation of generalized human cognitive capacities that enables the ...