Showing posts with label ISRO. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ISRO. Show all posts

What Is The SSLV Rocket?

    What Is SSLV?

    The Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) is an ISRO-developed small-lift launch vehicle with a payload capacity of 500 kg (1,100 lb) to low Earth orbit (500 km (310 mi)) or 300 kg (660 lb) to Sun-synchronous orbit (500 km (310 mi)) for launching small satellites, as well as the ability to support multiple orbital drop-offs. 

    SSLV is designed with low cost and quick turnaround in mind, with launch-on-demand flexibility and minimum infrastructure needs. 

    The SSLV-D1 launched from the First Launch Pad on August 7, 2022, but failed to reach orbit. 

    SSLV launches to Sun-synchronous orbit will be handled in the future by the SSLV Launch Complex (SLC) at Kulasekharapatnam in Tamil Nadu

    After entering the operational phase, the vehicle's manufacture and launch operations would be handled by an Indian consortium led by NewSpace India Limited (NSIL). 

    What Is The Origin And Evolution Of SSLV?

    The SSLV was created with the goal of commercially launching small satellites at a far lower cost and with a greater launch rate than the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)

    SSLV has a development cost of 169.07 crore (US$21 million) and a production cost of 30 crore (US$3.8 million) to 35 crore (US$4.4 million). 

    The expected high launch rate is based on mostly autonomous launch operations and simplified logistics in general. 

    In comparison, a PSLV launch employs 600 officials, but SSLV launch procedures are overseen by a tiny crew of about six persons. 

    The SSLV's launch preparation phase is predicted to be less than a week rather than months. 

    The launch vehicle may be erected vertically, similar to the current PSLV and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), or horizontally, similar to the decommissioned Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) and Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV)

    The vehicle's initial three stages employ HTPB-based solid propellant, with a fourth terminal stage consisting of a Velocity-Trimming Module (VTM) with eight 50 N reaction control thrusters and eight 50 N axial thrusters for altering velocity. 

    SSLV's first and third stages (SS1) are novel, while the second stage (SS2) is derived from PSLV's third stage (HPS3). 

    Where Is The SSLV Launch Complex?

    Early developmental flights and those to inclined orbits would launch from Sriharikota, first from existing launch pads and ultimately from a new facility in Kulasekharapatnam known as the SSLV Launch Complex (SLC). 

    In October 2019, tenders for production, installation, assembly, inspection, testing, and Self Propelled Launching Unit (SPU) were announced. 

    When completed, this proposed spaceport at Kulasekharapatnam in Tamil Nadu would handle SSLV launches to Sun-synchronous orbit. 

    What Is The History Of The SSLV?

    Rajaram Nagappa recommended the development route of a 'Small Satellite Launch Vehicle-1' to launch strategic payloads in a National Institute of Advanced Studies paper in 2016. 

    S. Somanath, then-Director of Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, acknowledged a need for identifying a cost-effective launch vehicle configuration with 500 kg payload capacity to LEO at the National Space Science Symposium in 2016, and development of such a launch vehicle was underway by November 2017. 

    The vehicle design was completed by the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) in December 2018. 

    All booster segments for the SSLV first stage (SS1) static test (ST01) were received in December 2020 and assembled in the Second Vehicle Assembly Building (SVAB). 

    On March 18, 2021, the SS1 first-stage booster failed its first static fire test (ST01). 

    Oscillations were detected about 60 seconds into the test, and the nozzle of the SS1 stage disintegrated after 95 seconds. 

    The test was supposed to last 110 seconds. 

    SSLV's solid first stage SS1 must pass two consecutive nominal static fire tests in order to fly. 

    In August 2021, the SSLV Payload Fairing (SPLF) functional certification test was completed. 

    On 14 March 2022, the second static fire test of SSLV first stage SS1 was performed at SDSC-SHAR and satisfied the specified test goals. 

    How Will The Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) Be Manufactured?

    ISRO has begun development of a Small Satellite Launch Vehicle to serve the burgeoning global small satellite launch service industry. 

    NSIL would be responsible for manufacturing SSLV via Indian industry partners. 


    What Are The Unique Features Of The Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)?

    SSLV has been intended to suit "Launch on Demand" criteria while being cost-effective. 

    It is a three-stage all-solid vehicle capable of launching up to 500 kilograms satellites into 500 km LEO. 

    What Are The Expected Benefits Of The SSLV Rocket?

    Reduced Turn-around Time Launch on Demand Cost Optimization.

    Realization and Operation Ability to accommodate several satellites.

    Minimum infrastructure required for launch Design practices that have stood the test of time.

    The first flight from SDSC SHAR was originally scheduled during the fourth quarter of 2019. It occurred only in August of 2022.

    Following the first developmental flights, ISRO plans to produce SSLV via Indian Industries through its commercial arm, NSIL. 

    What Is The Operational Performance History Of The SSLV?

    The SSLV's maiden developmental flight was place on August 7, 2022. 

    SSLV-D1 was the name of the flying mission. 

    The SSLV-D1 flight's mission goals were not met. 

    The rocket featured three stages and a fourth Velocity Trimming Module (VTM). 

    The rocket stood 34m tall, with a diameter of 2m, and a lift-off mass of 120t in its D1 version. 

    The rocket launched EOS 02, a 135 kilograms Earth observation satellite, and AzaadiSAT, an 8 kg CubeSat payload designed by Indian students to promote inclusion in STEM education. 

    The SSLV-D1 was planned to deploy the two satellite payloads in a circular orbit with a height of 356.2 km and an inclination of 37.2°. 

    The ISRO's stated reason for the mission's failure was software failure. 

    The mission software identified an accelerometer anomaly during the second stage separation, according to the ISRO. 

    As a result, the rocket navigation switched from closed loop to open loop guidance. 

    Despite the fact that this change in guiding mode was part of the redundancy incorporated into the rocket's navigation, it was not enough to save the mission. 

    During open loop guiding mode, the last VTM stage only fired for 0.1s rather than the required 20s. 

    As a result, the two satellites and the rocket's VTM stage were injected into an unstable elliptical 35676 km orbit. 

    The SSLV-final D1's VTM stage had 16 hydrazine-fueled (MMH+MON3) thrusters. 

    Eight of them were to regulate the orbital velocity and the other eight were to control the altitude. 

    During the orbital insertion maneuvers, the VTM stage also controlled pitch, yaw, and roll. 

    The SSLV-three D1's major stages all worked well. 

    However, this was insufficient to provide enough thrust for the two satellite payloads to establish stable orbits. 

    The VTM stage required to burn for at least 20 seconds to impart enough extra orbital velocity and altitude adjustments to put the two satellite payloads into their designated stable orbits. 

    Instead, the VTM activated at 653.5s and shut down at 653.6s after lift-off. 

    After the VTM stage was partially fired, the EOS 02 was released at 738.5s and AazadiSAT at 788.4s after liftoff. 

    These failures occurred, causing the satellites to reach an unstable orbit and then be destroyed upon reentry. 

    What Was The Performance Outcome Of The SSLV D1 Mission?

    SSLV's maiden developmental flight. 

    The mission goal was a circular orbit of 356.2 km height and 37.2° inclination. 

    Two satellite payloads were carried on the trip. 

    1. The 135-kilogram EOS-02 Earth observation satellite 
    2. and the 8-kilogram AzaadiSAT CubeSat. 

    Due to sensor failure and flaws in onboard software, the stage and two satellite payloads were put into an unstable elliptical orbit of 35676 km and then destroyed upon reentry. 

    The mission software, according to the ISRO, failed to detect and rectify a sensor malfunction in the VTM stage. 

    The last VTM stage only fired momentarily (0.1s). 

    What Were The Overall Lessons From The SSLV-D1/EOS-02 Mission?

    Mission ISRO developed a small satellite launch vehicle (SSLV) to launch up to 500 kilograms satellites into Low Earth Orbits on a 'launch-on-demand' basis . 

    The SSLV-D1/EOS-02 Mission's first developmental flight was slated for August 7, 2022, at 09:18 a.m. 

    (IST) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre's First Launch Pad in Sriharikota. 

    The SSLV-D1 mission would send EOS-02, a 135 kilograms satellite, into a low-Earth orbit 350 kilometers above the equator at an inclination of roughly 37 degrees. 

    The mission also transports the AzaadiSAT satellite. 

    SSLV is built with three solid stages weighing 87 t, 7.7 t, and 4.5 t. 

    The satellite is inserted into the desired orbit using a liquid propulsion-based velocity trimming module. 

    • SSLV is capable of launching Mini, Micro, or Nanosatellites (weighing between 10 and 500 kg) into a 500 km planar orbit. 
    • SSLV gives low-cost on-demand access to space. 
    • It has a quick turnaround time, the ability to accommodate numerous satellites, the ability to launch on demand, minimum launch infrastructure needs, and so on. 

    SSLV-D1 is a 34-meter-tall, 2-meter-diameter vehicle with a lift-off mass of 120 tonnes. 

    ISRO developed and built the EOS-02 earth observation satellite. 

    This microsat class satellite provides superior optical remote sensing with excellent spatial resolution in the infrared spectrum. 

    The bus configuration is based on the IMS-1 bus. 

    AzaadiSAT is an 8U Cubesat that weighs around 8 kg. 

    It transports 75 distinct payloads, each weighing roughly 50 grams and performing femto-experiments. 

    These payloads were built with the help of female students from rural areas around the nation. 

    The payloads were assembled by the "Space Kidz India" student team. 

    A UHF-VHF Transponder operating on ham radio frequency to allow amateur radio operators to transmit speech and data, a solid state PIN diode-based Radiation counter to detect the ionizing radiation in its orbit, a long-range transponder, and a selfie camera are among the payloads. 

    The data from this satellite was planned to be received using the ground system built by 'Space Kidz India.'  

    Both satellite missions have failed as a result of the failure of SSLV-D1's terminal stage.

    When Is The SSLV D2 Planned To Lift Off?

    The SSLV's second developmental flight is planned for November of 2022. 

    It is intended to transport four Blacksky Global satellites weighing 56 kg to a 500 km circular orbit with a 50° inclination.  

    It will place the X-ray polarimeter satellite into low Earth orbit(LEO).

    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan.

    ISRO Shukrayaan-1 Venus Mission

      The Indian Space Research Organization has a long history of awe-inspiring the rest of the world by completing space missions at remarkably inexpensive prices. 

      In keeping with this tradition, the ISRO has set its sights on a Venus mission that would cost between Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 crore.

      "The price will be determined by the level of instrumentation. ISRO chairman S Somanath said, "If you install a lot of payload sensors, the cost would automatically go up."

      While foreign space organizations such as NASA spend vast sums of money on space missions, the ISRO prefers to focus on low-cost projects. 

      ISRO's Chandrayan-1 was a low-cost spacecraft developed for about Rs 386 crore. 

      The Chandrayaan-2 mission cost Rs 603 crore to develop, and Rs 367 crore to launch. (1 million USD is roughly = 7.8 Crores INR in 2022)

      The ISRO chairman said the agency is in the process of approaching the Union government for authorization for the mission, speaking to the media on the sidelines of a national conference on Aerospace Quality and Reliability.

      In response to concerns, he said that the timetable for Chandrayan-3 is still being worked out. 

      Following its Moon and Mars expeditions, the ISRO is considering a Venus trip. 

      Despite speculations that the ISRO is aiming a December 2024 launch window for the Venus mission, Somanath stated the timeline has yet to be finalized. 

      It would only be disclosed when the Union government had given its final approval. 

      The ISRO has worked hard to guarantee that it would be a one-of-a-kind mission. 

      "We have to be cautious with such pricey missions," he warned.

      "We don't want to conduct a Venus expedition just for the fun of it. 

      We're doing it because of the distinct identity that this mission will establish among all future Venus expeditions. 

      "That's the aim," Somanath said, adding that the mission would create a lot of data that scientists could use. 

      Despite the fact that the timetable has yet to be disclosed, the ISRO is well prepared. 

      "The technology definition, task package, scheduling, and procurement are all complete. But then it needs to go to the government, which will review it and ultimately approve it," he said. 

      According to him, Chandrayan 3 is now undergoing testing for navigation, instrumentation, and ground simulations. 

      However, no timetable has been established.

      India is preparing to enter the race to get to Venus alongside the US and many other nations after successfully completing Moon and Mars missions. 

      The mission's goal will be to investigate Venus's poisonous and corrosive atmosphere, which is characterized by clouds of sulfuric acid that blanket the planet.

      S Somanath, the head of Isro, said the project has been in the works for years and that the space agency is now "ready to launch an orbiter to Venus." "The project report is complete, the general plans are complete, and the funds have been identified. 

      "Building and launching a mission to Venus in a very short period of time is doable for India since the capacity exists now," the Isro chairman stated during a daylong seminar on Venusian research.

      The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is a Venus orbiter called designed to examine the planet's surface and atmosphere.

      In 2017, funds were given to finish early investigations, and instrument tenders were announced.

      The orbiter's scientific payload capabilities, depending on its ultimate design, would be about 100 kilograms (220 lb) with 500 W of power.

      At periapsis, the elliptical orbit around Venus is projected to be 500 kilometers (310 miles) long and 60,000 kilometers (37,000 miles) long. 

      Payload for science.

      The scientific payload will be 100 kg (220 lb) in weight and would include equipment from India and other nations. 

      Indian payloads and 7 foreign payloads have been shortlisted as of December 2019. 

      Instruments from India

      • Venus SAR L&S-Band
      • VARTISS (HF radar)
      • VSEAM (Surface Emissivity) (Surface Emissivity)
      • VCMC (VTC (Thermal Camera)) (Cloud Monitoring)
      • LIVE (Lightning Sensor)

      • VASP (Spectro Polarimeter)
      • SPAV (Solar occultation photometry)
      • NAVA (Airglow imager)
      • RAVI (RO Experiment)
      • * ETA (Electron Temperature Analyzer)
      • RPA (Retarding Potential Analyzer)
      • Spectrometer of mass
      • (Plasma Analyzer)* VISWAS

      • VREM (Radiation Environment)
      • SSXS (Solar Soft X-ray Spectrometer )
      • VIPER (Plasma Wave Detector)
      • VODEX (Dust experiment)
      • * Collaboration with Germany and Sweden is envisaged for RAVI and VISWAS. 

      International Payloads

        • Space Research Institute, Moscow, and LATMOS, France developed VIRAL (Venus Infrared Atmospheric Gas Linker).
        • IVOLGA is a laser heterodyne NIR spectrometer used to investigate the structure and dynamics of Venus's mesosphere.

      Overview Of The ISRO Shukrayaan Mission

      Surface/subsurface stratigraphy and resurfacing processes are among the three broad research areas for this mission; second, study atmospheric chemistry, dynamics, and compositional variations; and third, study solar irradiance and solar wind interaction with Venus' ionosphere while studying the structure, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere.

      Shukrayaan Mission Inception, History And Status

      ISRO has been researching the possibility of future interplanetary missions to Mars and Venus, Earth's nearest planetary neighbors, based on the success of Chandrayaan and the Mangalyaan. 

      • The Venus mission proposal was initially proposed in 2012 at a Tirupati space meet. 
      • The Indian government increased funding for the Department of Space by 23% in its 2017–18 budget. 
      • The budget specifies funds "for Mars Orbiter Mission II and Mission to Venus" under the space sciences department, and it was approved to perform preliminary investigations after the 2017–18 request for funding. 

      ISRO issued a 'Announcement of Opportunity' (AO) on April 19, 2017, requesting scientific payload ideas from Indian universities based on wide mission parameters.

      ISRO issued another 'Announcement of Opportunity' on November 6, 2018, soliciting payload applications from the worldwide scientific community. 

      The allowable scientific payload capacity was reduced from 175 kg in the first AO to 100 kg. 

      In 2018, India's ISRO and France's CNES had talks about collaborating on this mission and developing autonomous navigation and aerobraking technology together.

      • In addition, using his knowledge from the Vega mission, French astronomer Jacques Blamont indicated interest in using inflated balloons to examine the Venusian atmosphere to U R Rao. 
      • These instrumented balloons may be launched from an orbiter and gather long-term observations while floating in the planet's comparatively benign upper atmosphere, similar to the Vega missions. 
      • ISRO agreed to investigate a proposal to research the Venusian atmosphere at 55 kilometers (34 miles) altitude with a balloon probe carrying a 10 kilogram (22 pound) payload. 

      The Venus project is still in the configuration research phase as of late 2018, and ISRO has not yet received complete sanction from the Indian government.

      In 2019, IUCAA Director Somak Raychaudhury announced that a drone-like probe was being considered as part of the mission. 

      ISRO scientist T Maria Antonita stated in a report to NASA's Decadal Planetary Science Committee that the launch would take place in December 2024. 

      She also said that a backup date in 2026 exists. 

      ISRO has selected 20 foreign bids as of November 2020, including collaborations with Russia, France, Sweden, and Germany. 

      ISRO and the Swedish Institute of Space Physics are working together on the Shukrayaan-1 project. 

      ISRO chairman S. Somanath indicated in May 2022 that the mission will launch in December 2024, with a backup launch window in 2031.

      Shukrayaan Mission Salient Features

      Type of mission Shukrayaan-1: Venus orbiter

      Operator: ISRO

      Planned mission duration: 4 years

      Spacecraft characteristics:

      Manufacturer: ISAC

      2,500 kg launch mass (5,500 lb)

      100 kilogram payload mass (220 lb)

      Payload power is 500 watts (0.67 horsepower).

      December 2024 is the scheduled launch date (planned)

      Launch Vehicle: GSLV Mark II rocket

      SDSC SHAR Contractor : ISRO Launch Site

      Missions Primary Components:

      • Orbiter of Venus
      • Atmospheric probe for Venus
      • Aerobot balloon is a spacecraft component.

      ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan.

      PSLV-C52 Launch Of EOS-04, INSPIREsat-1 And INS-2TD

        Watch the PSLV-C52/EOS-04 Launch Live Streaming. (Scheduled On: February 14, 2022, at 05:30 IST)

        PSLV-C 52 Launch Updates:

        ISRO's first launch of 2022, under the leadership of new Chairman S. Somanath, went off without a hitch, precisely positioning all three satellites in their assigned orbits. 

        The PSLV C-52 of the Indian Space Research Organization lighted up the pre-dawn black sky and Pulicat Lake with thick orange fumes as it rose into the air, breaking the early stillness with the booming roar of the launch vehicle that had three satellites on board. 

        ISRO's first launch of 2022, under the leadership of new Chairman S. Somanath, went off without a hitch, precisely positioning all three satellites in their assigned orbits. 

        At 0617 IST, PSLV-C52 inserted EOS-04 into a 529km altitude sun-synchronous polar orbit, according to the Indian Space Research Organization. 

        The PSLV C-52 was the PSLV's 54th flight and the 23rd mission to use the PSLV-XL variant. 

        PSLV-C52 launched three satellites from the first launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota at 5.59 a.m on Monday, including its principal payload, the EOS-04 radar imaging satellite. 

        • The EOS-04 satellite was put in a solar synchronous orbit 17 minutes after launch. 
        • The rocket then inserted the two additional satellites, INS-2TD and Inspiresat-1, a minute later. 
        • The fourth stage was passivated to remove residual propellants four minutes after lift-off, using mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON) passivation followed by mono methyl hydrazine (MMH) passivation, two propellants that power PSLV's upper stage. 
        • The passivation process lasted ten minutes. 
        • Passivation is the process of removing any remaining fuel from a rocket to avoid the higher stages from exploding. 
        • The top stage burns inactively or vents the leftover propellants. 

        PSLV's 54th flight and 23rd mission with six PSOM-XLs used the PSLV-XL configuration. 

        "The main satellite, EOS-04, has been placed in a very exact orbit by PSLV-C52," Isro chairman S Somanath stated, congratulating the crew. 

        The INS-2TD and INSPIREsat-1 co-passenger satellites have also been put in the proper orbits. 

        This spacecraft will be one of the most valuable assets in the country's arsenal. 

        We will come back with another PSLV launch very soon." 

        "First and foremost, let me congratulate the PSLV crew for the exact inject of EOS-04," Srikanth remarked. 

        The launch has re-energized the ISRO crew. 

        The most awaited spacecraft, EOS-04, is an earth observation mission that will serve the country in agriculture, soil moisture, disaster management, disaster assessment, carbon inventory, forest and plantation management, and many other sectors with indigenously developed state-of-the-art technology SAR." 

        "After separation, EOS-04's health is in fantastic condition. 

        I'm pleased to report that the solar panels have been deployed autonomously and have begun to provide the desired electricity.... 

        The satellite will be ready to offer the first sight of photos in a few days following calibration and outgassing. 

        Many government services will be enhanced by the services. 

        EOS-04 is a minor step toward the country's objective of opening the space sector with industry engagement in the form of build to print, as well as assemble and test. 

        We were able to achieve a reasonable level of success in our endeavor." 

        The launch's success was critical for ISRO, who had a quiet 2020 with just two launches, one of which, the GSLVF10, crashed shortly after launch. 

        On Monday, the PSLV C-52, carrying the Earth Observation Satellite EOS 04, the INS-2TD, an ISRO technology demonstrator, and the INSPIREsat-1, a student satellite, launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, SHAR, Sriharikota, at 5.59 a.m. 

        The three satellites were separated and sent into their orbits 18 minutes later. 

        "The EOS 04, the principal spacecraft, has been placed in a precise orbit. 

        The co-passenger satellites have been positioned in the proper orbit," Mr. Somanath said, adding that ISRO would "be back with the next PSLV launch very shortly." 

        • The EOS-4, a radar imaging satellite with a 10-year mission life, is intended to deliver high-quality pictures in all weather circumstances for agricultural, forestry, plantation, flood mapping, soil moisture, and hydrological applications. 
          • According to ISRO, the satellite would acquire earth observation data in the C-band, complementing and supplementing data from the Resourcesat, Cartosat, and RISAT-2B series. 

        • The INS-2TD will measure land and water surface temperatures, agricultural and forest delineation, and thermal inertia as a forerunner to the India-Bhutan joint satellite [INS 2-B]. 

        • INSPIREsat-1 is a student satellite developed by the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology in collaboration with the University of Colorado in the United States. 

          • Its goal is to improve knowledge of ionosphere dynamics and coronal heating processes on the Sun. 

        On Monday, Prime Minister Narendra Modi congratulated India's space experts on the success of the PSLV C52 mission launch. 

        "Congratulations to our space experts on the successful launch of PSLV C52 mission," Mr. Modi tweeted. 

        About The EOS-04 Earth Observation Satellite:

        EOS-04 is a Radar Imaging Satellite that is intended to deliver high-quality photos in all weather circumstances for applications including agriculture, forestry, and plantations, soil moisture and hydrology, and flood mapping. 

        The spacecraft will gather data in the C-Band band, completing observations made by the Resourcesat, Cartosat, and RISAT-2B series. The satellite has a ten-year operational life. 

        The tentative launch time of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C52, is planned for February 14, 2022, at 05:59 a.m from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre's First Launch Pad at Sriharikota. 

        The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch PSLV-C52, an earth observation satellite, into orbit on February 14 at 5.59 a.m., with the countdown beginning on Sunday morning. This is the ISRO's first launch mission of the year. 

        PSLV-C52 is planned to place the 1710 kg EOS-04 into a 529 km sun-synchronous polar orbit, according to ISRO. 

        PSLV-C52 Mission Summary: 

        1. The PSLV-C52 will be launched from Sriharikota's Satish Dhawan Space Centre's First Launch Pad. 



        2. According to the space agency, EOS-04 is a Radar Imaging Satellite intended to deliver high-quality photos in all weather circumstances for applications such as agriculture, forestry and plantations, soil moisture and hydrology, and flood mapping. 

        3. The mission will also carry two small satellites as co-passengers:


        1. An Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology student satellite (INSPIREsat-1) in collaboration with the University of Colorado Boulder's Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics,
        2. And an ISRO technology demonstrator satellite, INS-2TD. 

        PSLV-C52 will also carry an ISRO technology demonstration satellite (INS-2TD), which is a forerunner to the India-Bhutan Joint Satellite Program (INS-2B). 

        • The 17.5-kilogram satellite will only be operational for six months. 

        The launch comes months after the disastrous loss of the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS-03) in August of last year, which was unable to be deployed owing to a "technical problem." 

        • A thermal imaging sensor on board the satellite will aid in the evaluation of land, water surface temperatures, vegetation delineation, and thermal inertia. 

        The final payload is an 8.1-kilogram student satellite called INSPIRESat-1, which was designed by the Indian Institute of Space Science & Technology in collaboration with the University of Colorado's Laboratory of Atmospheric & Space Physics. 

        • The satellite will help us better understand the dynamics of the ionosphere and the sun's coronal heating process. 
        • It has a one-year operating lifespan. 

        PSLV C-52 - The 54th Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Launch

        The PSLV's 54th mission will see it ascend to a Sun Synchronous Orbit height of 529 kilometers above the Earth's surface, where it will deploy the Earth Observation Satellite. 

        • The PSLV is an Indian-designed third-generation launch vehicle that can carry up to 1,750 kg of cargo to 600 km altitude Sun-Synchronous Polar Orbits. 
        • In 2008, the four-stage rocket successfully launched Chandrayaan-1 to the Moon, and in 2013, the Mars Orbiter Spacecraft to Mars. 
        • The liftoff mass of the 44-meter-tall vehicle is 320 tons. 

        Stages Of The PSLV-C52:

        • PSLV's first stage is powered by the S139 solid rocket motor, which is supplemented by six solid strap-on boosters, 
        • While the second stage is powered by the Vikas engine, which was developed in India. 
        • The PSLV's third stage is a solid rocket motor that gives high thrust to the higher stages following the launch's atmospheric phase, while the fourth stage is made up of two Earth-storable liquid engines. 

        ISRO's Upcoming Missions

        In the next three months, ISRO plans to launch five significant satellites in order to reclaim its lost ground in space operations, despite stiff competition from China and commercial companies such as SpaceX, which plans to launch one satellite per week in 2022. 

        • ISRO will launch OCEANSAT-3 and INS 2B ANAND on PSLV C-53 in March and SSLV-D1 Micro SAT in April 2022, after the PSLV-C52 mission. 
        • ISRO will also launch GSAT-21, New Space India Limited's first fully sponsored satellite (NSIL). 
        • The space agency, which recently appointed renowned rocket scientist S Somnath as its new leader, has 19 missions slated for flight in 2022. 
        • Eight launch vehicle flights, seven spacecraft missions, and four technology demonstration missions are among them. 

        In August, the agency will launch its ambitious Chandrayaan-3 mission to the Moon, aiming for Gaganyaan's first uncrewed trip, the country's first astronaut mission.

        ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan.

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