Showing posts with label Marvin Minsky. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Marvin Minsky. Show all posts

Artificial Intelligence - Who Was Marvin Minsky?


Donner Professor of Natural Sciences Marvin Minsky (1927–2016) was a well-known cognitive scientist, inventor, and artificial intelligence researcher from the United States.

At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he cofounded the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in the 1950s and the Media Lab in the 1980s.

His renown was such that the sleeping astronaut Dr.

Victor Kaminski (killed by the HAL 9000 sentient computer) was named after him when he was an adviser on Stanley Kubrick's iconic film 2001: A Space Odyssey in the 1960s.

At the conclusion of high school in the 1940s, Minsky got interested in intelligence, thinking, and learning machines.

He was interested in neurology, physics, music, and psychology as a Harvard student.

On problem-solving and learning ideas, he collaborated with cognitive psychologist George Miller, and on perception and brain modeling theories with J.C.R. Licklider, professor of psychoacoustics and later father of the internet.

Minsky started thinking about mental ideas while at Harvard.

"I thought the brain was made up of tiny relays called neurons, each of which had a probability linked to it that determined whether the neuron would conduct an electric pulse," he later recalled.

"Technically, this system is now known as a stochastic neural network" (Bern stein 1981).

This hypothesis is comparable to Donald Hebb's Hebbian theory, which he laid forth in his book The Organization of Behavior (1946).

In the mathematics department, he finished his undergraduate thesis on topology.

Minsky studied mathematics as a graduate student at Princeton University, but he became increasingly interested in attempting to build artificial neurons out of vacuum tubes like those described in Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts' famous 1943 paper "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity." He thought that a machine like this might navigate mazes like a rat.

In the summer of 1951, he and fellow Princeton student Dean Edmonds created the system, termed SNARC (Stochastic Neural-Analog Reinforcement Calculator), with money from the Office of Naval Research.

There were 300 tubes in the machine, as well as multiple electric motors and clutches.

Making it a learning machine, the machine employed the clutches to adjust its own knobs.

The electric rat initially walked at random, but after learning how to make better choices and accomplish a wanted objective via reinforcement of probability, it learnt how to make better choices and achieve a desired goal.

Multiple rats finally gathered in the labyrinth and learnt from one another.

Minsky built a second memory for his hard-wired neural network in his dissertation thesis, which helped the rat recall what stimulus it had received.

When confronted with a new circumstance, this enabled the system to explore its memories and forecast the optimum course of action.

Minsky had believed that by adding enough memory loops to his self-organizing random networks, conscious intelligence would arise spontaneously.

In 1954, Minsky finished his dissertation, "Neural Nets and the Brain Model Problem." After graduating from Princeton, Minsky continued to consider how to create artificial intelligence.

In 1956, he organized and participated in the DartmouthSummer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence with John McCarthy, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude Shannon.

The Dartmouth workshop is often referred to as a watershed moment in AI research.

Minsky started replicating the computational process of proving Euclid's geometric theorems using bits of paper during the summer workshop since no computer was available.

He realized he could create an imagined computer that would locate proofs without having to tell it precisely what it needed to accomplish.

Minsky showed the results to Nathaniel Rochester, who returned to IBM and asked Herbert Gelernter, a new physics hire, to write a geometry-proving program on a computer.

Gelernter built a program in FORTRAN List Processing Language, a language he invented.

Later, John McCarthy combined Gelernter's language with ideas from mathematician Alonzo Church to develop LISP, the most widely used AI language (List-Processing).

Minsky began his studies at MIT in 1957.

He started worked on pattern recognition difficulties with Oliver Selfridge at the university's Lincoln Laboratory.

The next year, he was hired as an assistant professor in the mathematics department.

He founded the AI Group with McCarthy, who had transferred to MIT from Dartmouth.

They continued to work on machine learning concepts.

Minsky started working with mathematician Seymour Papert in the 1960s.

Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry (1969) was a joint publication describing a kind of artificial neural network described by Cornell Aeronautical Lab oratory psychologist Frank Rosenblatt.

The book sparked a decades-long debate in the AI field, which continues to this day in certain aspects.

The mathematical arguments provided in Minsky and Papert's book pushed the field to shift toward symbolic AI (also known as "Good Old-Fashioned AI" or GOFAI) in the 1980s, when artificial intelligence researchers rediscovered perceptrons and neural networks.

Time-shared computers were more widely accessible on the MIT campus in the 1960s, and Minsky started working with students on machine intelligence issues.

One of the first efforts was to teach computers how to solve problems in basic calculus using symbolic manipulation techniques such as differentiation and integration.

In 1961, his student James Robert Slagle built a software for symbol manipulation.

SAINT was the name of the application, which operated on an IBM 7090 transistorized mainframe computer (Symbolic Automatic INTegrator).

Other students applied the technique to any symbol manipulation that their software MACSYMA would demand.

Minsky's pupils also had to deal with the challenge of educating a computer to reason by analogy.

Minsky's team also worked on issues related to computational linguistics, computer vision, and robotics.

Daniel Bobrow, one of his pupils, taught a computer how to answer word problems, an accomplishment that combined language processing and mathematics.

Henry Ernst, a student, designed the first computer-controlled robot, a mechanical hand with photoelectric touch sensors for grasping nuclear materials.

Minsky collaborated with Papert to develop semi-independent programs that could interact with one another to address increasingly complex challenges in computer vision and manipulation.

Minsky and Papert combined their nonhierarchical management techniques into a natural intelligence hypothesis known as the Society of Mind.

Intelligence, according to this view, is an emergent feature that results from tiny interactions between programs.

After studying various constructions, the MIT AI Group trained a computer-controlled robot to build structures out of children's blocks by 1970.

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the blocks-manipulating robot and the Society of Mind hypothesis evolved.

Minsky finally released The Society of Mind (1986), a model for the creation of intelligence through individual mental actors and their interactions, rather than any fundamental principle or universal technique.

He discussed consciousness, self, free will, memory, genius, language, memory, brainstorming, learning, and many other themes in the book, which is made up of 270 unique articles.

Agents, according to Minsky, do not require their own mind, thinking, or feeling abilities.

They are not intelligent.

However, when they work together as a civilization, they develop what we call human intellect.

To put it another way, understanding how to achieve any certain goal requires the collaboration of various agents.

Agents are required by Minsky's robot constructor to see, move, locate, grip, and balance blocks.

"I'd like to believe that this effort provided us insights into what goes on within specific sections of children's brains when they learn to 'play' with basic toys," he wrote (Minsky 1986, 29).

Minsky speculated that there may be over a hundred agents collaborating to create what we call mind.

In the book Emotion Machine, he expanded on his views on Society of Mind (2006).

He argued that emotions are not a separate kind of reasoning in this section.

Rather, they reflect different ways of thinking about various sorts of challenges that people face in the real world.

According to Minsky, the mind changes between different modes of thought, thinks on several levels, finds various ways to represent things, and constructs numerous models of ourselves.

Minsky remarked on a broad variety of popular and significant subjects linked to artificial intelligence and robotics in his final years via his books and interviews.

The Turing Option (1992), a book created by Minsky in partnership with science fiction novelist Harry Harrison, is set in the year 2023 and deals with issues of artificial intelligence.

In a 1994 article for Scientific American headlined "Will Robots Inherit the Earth?" he said, "Yes, but they will be our children" (Minsky 1994, 113).

Minsky once suggested that a superintelligent AI may one day spark a Riemann Hypothesis Catastrophe, in which an agent charged with answering the hypothesis seizes control of the whole planet's resources in order to obtain even more supercomputing power.

He didn't think this was a plausible scenario.

Humans could be able to converse with intelligent alien life forms, according to Minsky.

They'd think like humans because they'd be constrained by the same "space, time, and material constraints" (Minsky 1987, 117).

Minsky was also a critic of the Loebner Prize, the world's oldest Turing Test-like competition, claiming that it is detrimental to artificial intelligence research.

To anybody who could halt Hugh Loebner's yearly competition, he offered his own Minsky Loebner Prize Revocation Prize.

Both Minsky and Loebner died in 2016, yet the Loebner Prize competition is still going on.

Minsky was also responsible for the development of the confocal microscope (1957) and the head-mounted display (HMD) (1963).

He was awarded the Turing Award in 1969, the Japan Prize in 1990, and the Benjamin Franklin Medal in 1991. (2001). Daniel Bobrow (operating systems), K. Eric Drexler (molecular nanotechnology), Carl Hewitt (mathematics and philosophy of logic), Danny Hillis (parallel computing), Benjamin Kuipers (qualitative simulation), Ivan Sutherland (computer graphics), and Patrick Winston (computer graphics) were among Minsky's doctoral students (who succeeded Minsky as director of the MIT AI Lab).

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

Find Jai on Twitter | LinkedIn | Instagram

You may also want to read more about Artificial Intelligence here.

See also: 

AI Winter; Chatbots and Loebner Prize; Dartmouth AI Conference; 2001: A Space Odyssey.

References & Further Reading:

Bernstein, Jeremy. 1981. “Marvin Minsky’s Vision of the Future.” New Yorker, December 7, 1981.

Minsky, Marvin. 1986. The Society of Mind. London: Picador.

Minsky, Marvin. 1987. “Why Intelligent Aliens Will Be Intelligible.” In Extraterrestrials: Science and Alien Intelligence, edited by Edward Regis, 117–28. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Minsky, Marvin. 1994. “Will Robots Inherit the Earth?” Scientific American 271, no. 4 (October): 108–13.

Minsky, Marvin. 2006. The Emotion Machine. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Minsky, Marvin, and Seymour Papert. 1969. Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Singh, Push. 2003. “Examining the Society of Mind.” Computing and Informatics 22, no. 6: 521–43.

Artificial Intelligence - What Is The ELIZA Software?


ELIZA is a conversational computer software created by German-American computer scientist Joseph Weizenbaum at Massachusetts Institute of Technology between 1964 and 1966.

Weizenbaum worked on ELIZA as part of a groundbreaking artificial intelligence research team on the DARPA-funded Project MAC, which was directed by Marvin Minsky (Mathematics and Computation).

Weizenbaum called ELIZA after Eliza Doolittle, a fictitious character in the play Pygmalion who learns correct English; that play had recently been made into the successful film My Fair Lady in 1964.

ELIZA was created with the goal of allowing a person to communicate with a computer system in plain English.

Weizenbaum became an AI skeptic as a result of ELIZA's popularity among users.

When communicating with ELIZA, users may input any statement into the system's open-ended interface.

ELIZA will often answer by asking a question, much like a Rogerian psychologist attempting to delve deeper into the patient's core ideas.

The application recycles portions of the user's comments while the user continues their chat with ELIZA, providing the impression that ELIZA is genuinely listening.

Weizenbaum had really developed ELIZA to have a tree-like decision structure.

The user's statements are first filtered for important terms.

The terms are ordered in order of significance if more than one keyword is discovered.

For example, if a user writes in "I suppose everyone laughs at me," the term "everybody," not "I," is the most crucial for ELIZA to reply to.

In order to generate a response, the computer uses a collection of algorithms to create a suitable sentence structure around those key phrases.

Alternatively, if the user's input phrase does not include any words found in ELIZA's database, the software finds a content-free comment or repeats a previous answer.

ELIZA was created by Weizenbaum to investigate the meaning of machine intelligence.

Weizenbaum derived his inspiration from a comment made by MIT cognitive scientist Marvin Minsky, according to a 1962 article in Datamation.

"Intelligence was just a characteristic human observers were willing to assign to processes they didn't comprehend, and only for as long as they didn't understand them," Minsky had claimed (Weizenbaum 1962).

If such was the case, Weizenbaum concluded, artificial intelligence's main goal was to "fool certain onlookers for a while" (Weizenbaum 1962).

ELIZA was created to accomplish precisely that by giving users reasonable answers while concealing how little the software genuinely understands in order to keep the user's faith in its intelligence alive for a bit longer.

Weizenbaum was taken aback by how successful ELIZA became.

ELIZA's Rogerian script became popular as a program renamed DOCTOR at MIT and distributed to other university campuses by the late 1960s—where the program was constructed from Weizenbaum's 1965 description published in the journal Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery.

The application deceived (too) many users, even those who were well-versed in its methods.

Most notably, some users grew so engrossed with ELIZA that they demanded that others leave the room so they could have a private session with "the" DOCTOR.

But it was the psychiatric community's reaction that made Weizenbaum very dubious of current artificial intelligence ambitions in general, and promises of computer comprehension of natural language in particular.

Kenneth Colby, a Stanford University psychiatrist with whom Weizenbaum had previously cooperated, created PARRY about the same time that Weizenbaum released ELIZA.

Colby, unlike Weizenbaum, thought that programs like PARRY and ELIZA were beneficial to psychology and public health.

They aided the development of diagnostic tools, enabling one psychiatric computer to treat hundreds of patients, according to him.

Weizenbaum's worries and emotional plea to the community of computer scientists were eventually conveyed in his book Computer Power and Human Reason (1976).

Weizenbaum railed against individuals who neglected the presence of basic distinctions between man and machine in this — at the time — hotly discussed book, arguing that "there are some things that computers ought not to execute, regardless of whether computers can be persuaded to do them" (Weizenbaum 1976, x).

Jai Krishna Ponnappan

You may also want to read more about Artificial Intelligence here.

See also: 

Chatbots and Loebner Prize; Expert Systems; Minsky, Marvin; Natural Lan￾guage Processing and Speech Understanding; PARRY; Turing Test

Further Reading:

McCorduck, Pamela. 1979. Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence, 251–56, 308–28. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Weizenbaum, Joseph. 1962. “How to Make a Computer Appear Intelligent: Five in a Row Offers No Guarantees.” Datamation 8 (February): 24–26.

Weizenbaum, Joseph. 1966. “ELIZA: A Computer Program for the Study of Natural Language Communication between Man and Machine.” Communications of the ACM 1 (January): 36–45.

Weizenbaum, Joseph. 1976. Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company

Artificial Intelligence - What Is The Dartmouth AI Conference?


    The Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence, officially known as the "Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence," was held in 1956 and is frequently referred to as the AI Constitution.

    • The multidisciplinary conference, held on the Dartmouth College campus in Hanover, New Hampshire, brought together specialists in cybernetics, automata and information theory, operations research, and game theory.
    • Claude Shannon (the "father of information theory"), Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Herbert Simon, Allen Newell ("founding fathers of artificial intelligence"), and Nathaniel Rochester (architect of IBM's first commercial scientific mainframe computer) were among the more than twenty attendees.
    • Participants came from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Bell Laboratories, and the RAND Systems Research Laboratory.

    The Rockefeller Foundation provided a substantial portion of the funding for the Dartmouth Conference.

    The Dartmouth Conference, which lasted around two months, was envisaged by the organizers as a method to make quick progress on computer models of human cognition.

    • "Every facet of learning or any other trait of intelligence may in theory be so clearly characterized that a computer can be constructed to replicate it," organizers said as a starting point for their deliberations (McCarthy 1955, 2).

    • In his Rockefeller Foundation proposal a year before to the summer meeting, mathematician and principal organizer John McCarthy created the phrase "artificial intelligence." McCarthy subsequently said that the new name was intended to establish a barrier between his study and the discipline of cybernetics.
    • He was a driving force behind the development of symbol processing techniques to artificial intelligence, which were at the time in the minority.
    • In the 1950s, analog cybernetic techniques and neural networks were the most common brain modeling methodologies.

    Issues Covered At The Conference.

    The Dartmouth Conference included a broad variety of issues, from complexity theory and neuron nets to creative thinking and unpredictability.

    • The conference is notable for being the site of the first public demonstration of Newell, Simon, and Clifford Shaw's Logic Theorist, a program that could independently verify theorems stated in Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead's Principia Mathematica.
    • The only program at the conference that tried to imitate the logical features of human intellect was Logic Theorist.
    • Attendees predicted that by 1970, digital computers would have become chess grandmasters, discovered new and important mathematical theorems, produced passable language translations and understood spoken language, and composed classical music.
    • Because the Rockefeller Foundation never received a formal report on the conference, the majority of information on the events comes from memories, handwritten notes, and a few papers authored by participants and published elsewhere.

    Mechanization of Thought Processes

    Following the Dartmouth Conference, the British National Physical Laboratory (NPL) hosted an international conference on "Mechanization of Thought Processes" in 1958.

    • Several Dartmouth Conference attendees, including Minsky and McCarthy, spoke at the NPL conference.
    • Minsky mentioned the Dartmouth Conference's relevance in the creation of his heuristic software for solving plane geometry issues and the switch from analog feedback, neural networks, and brain modeling to symbolic AI techniques at the NPL conference.
    • Neural networks did not resurface as a research topic until the mid-1980s.

    Dartmouth Summer Research Project 

    The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence was a watershed moment in the development of AI. 

    The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, which began in 1956, brought together a small group of scientists to kick off this area of study. 

    To mark the occasion, more than 100 researchers and academics gathered at Dartmouth for AI@50, a conference that celebrated the past, appraised current achievements, and helped seed ideas for future artificial intelligence research. 

    John McCarthy, then a mathematics professor at the College, convened the first gathering. 

    The meeting would "continue on the basis of the premise that any facet of learning or any other attribute of intelligence may in theory be so clearly characterized that a computer can be constructed to replicate it," according to his plan. 

    The director of AI@50, Professor of Philosophy James Moor, explains that the researchers who came to Hanover 50 years ago were thinking about methods to make robots more aware and sought to set out a framework to better comprehend human intelligence.

    Context Of The Dartmouth AI Conference:

    Cybernetics, automata theory, and sophisticated information processing were all terms used in the early 50s to describe the science of "thinking machines." 

    The wide range of names reflects the wide range of intellectual approaches. 

    In, John McCarthy, a Dartmouth College Assistant Professor of Mathematics, wanted to form a group to clarify and develop ideas regarding thinking machines. 

    • For the new field, he chose the moniker 'Artificial Intelligence.' He picked the term mainly to escape a concentration on limited automata theory and cybernetics, which was largely focused on analog feedback, as well as the possibility of having to accept or dispute with the aggressive Norbert Wiener as guru. 
    • McCarthy addressed the Rockefeller Foundation in early to seek money for a summer seminar at Dartmouth that would attract roughly 150 people. 
    • In June, he and Claude Shannon, then at Bell Labs, met with Robert Morison, Director of Biological and Medical Research, to explore the concept and potential financing, but Morison was skeptical if money would be made available for such a bold initiative. 

    McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude Shannon officially proposed the proposal in September. The term "artificial intelligence" was coined as a result of this suggestion. 

    According to the proposal, 

    • We suggest that during the summer of at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, a -month, -man artificial intelligence research be conducted. 
    • The research will be based on the hypothesis that any part of learning, or any other characteristic of intelligence, can be characterized exactly enough for a computer to imitate it. 
    • It will be attempted to figure out how to get robots to speak, develop abstractions and ideas, solve issues that are now reserved for people, and improve themselves. 
    • We believe that if a properly chosen group of scientists worked on one or more of these topics together for a summer, considerable progress might be accomplished. 
    • Computers, natural language processing, neural networks, theory of computing, abstraction, and creativity are all discussed further in the proposal (these areas within the field of artificial intelligence are considered still relevant to the work of the field). 

    He remarked, "We'll focus on the difficulty of figuring out how to program a calculator to construct notions and generalizations. 

    Of course, this is subject to change once the group meets." Ray Solomonoff, Oliver Selfridge, Trenchard More, Arthur Samuel, Herbert A. Simon, and Allen Newell were among the participants at the meeting, according to Stottler Henke Associates. 

    The real participants arrived at various times, most of which were for far shorter periods of time. 

    • Rochester was replaced for three weeks by Trenchard More, and MacKay and Holland were unable to attend—but the project was prepared to commence. 
    • Around June of that year, the first participants (perhaps simply Ray Solomonoff, maybe with Tom Etter) came to Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, to join John McCarthy, who had already set up residence there. 
    • Ray and Marvin remained at the Professors' apartments, while the most of the guests stayed at the Hanover Inn.

    List Of Dartmouth AI Conference Attendees:

    1. Ray Solomonoff
    2. Marvin Minsky
    3. John McCarthy
    4. Claude Shannon
    5. Trenchard More
    6. Nat Rochester
    7. Oliver Selfridge
    8. Julian Bigelow
    9. W. Ross Ashby
    10. W.S. McCulloch
    11. Abraham Robinson
    12. Tom Etter
    13. John Nash
    14. David Sayre
    15. Arthur Samuel
    16. Kenneth R. Shoulders
    17. Shoulders' friend
    18. Alex Bernstein
    19. Herbert Simon
    20. Allen Newell

    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

    You may also want to read more about Artificial Intelligence here.

    See also: 

    Cybernetics and AI; Macy Conferences; McCarthy, John; Minsky, Marvin; Newell, Allen; Simon, Herbert A.

    References & Further Reading:

    Crevier, Daniel. 1993. AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence. New York: Basic Books.

    Gardner, Howard. 1985. The Mind’s New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution. New York: Basic Books.

    Kline, Ronald. 2011. “Cybernetics, Automata Studies, and the Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 33, no. 4 (April): 5–16.

    McCarthy, John. 1955. “A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence.” Rockefeller Foundation application, unpublished.

    Moor, James. 2006. “The Dartmouth College Artificial Intelligence Conference: The Next Fifty Years.” AI Magazine 27, no. 4 (Winter): 87–91.

    Solomonoff, R.J.The Time Scale of Artificial Intelligence; Reflections on Social Effects, Human Systems Management, Vol 5 1985, Pp 149-153

    Moor, J., The Dartmouth College Artificial Intelligence Conference: The Next Fifty years, AI Magazine, Vol 27, No., 4, Pp. 87-9, 2006

    ump up to:

    Kline, Ronald R., Cybernetics, Automata Studies and the Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, October–December, 2011, IEEE Computer Society

    McCorduck, P., Machines Who Think, A.K. Peters, Ltd, Second Edition, 2004

    Nilsson, N., The Quest for Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge University Press, 2010

    Kline, Ronald R., Cybernetics, Automata Studies and the Dartmouth Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, October–December, 2011, IEEE Computer Society, (citing letters, from Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Dartmouth file6, 17, 1955 etc.

    McCarthy, J., Minsky, M., Rochester, N., Shannon, C.E., A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence., August, 1955

    McCarthy, John; Minsky, Marvin; Rochester, Nathan; Shannon, Claude (1955), A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, archived from the original on 2007-08-26, retrieved 2006-04-09 retrieved 10:47 (UTC), 9th of April 2006

     Stottler-Henke retrieved 18:19 (UTC), 27th of July 2006

    Nilsson, N., The Quest for Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge University Press, 2010, P. 53

    Solomonoff, R.J., dart56ray622716talk710.pdf, 1956 URL:{

    McCarthy, J., List, Sept., 1956; List among Solomonoff papers to be posted on website 1956

    Nilsson, N., The Quest for Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge University Press, 2010,
    personal communication

    McCorduck, P., Machines Who Think, A.K. Peters, Ltd, Second Edition, 2004.

    What Is Artificial General Intelligence?

    Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is defined as the software representation of generalized human cognitive capacities that enables the ...