Showing posts with label India. Show all posts
Showing posts with label India. Show all posts

What Is The SSLV Rocket?

    What Is SSLV?

    The Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) is an ISRO-developed small-lift launch vehicle with a payload capacity of 500 kg (1,100 lb) to low Earth orbit (500 km (310 mi)) or 300 kg (660 lb) to Sun-synchronous orbit (500 km (310 mi)) for launching small satellites, as well as the ability to support multiple orbital drop-offs. 

    SSLV is designed with low cost and quick turnaround in mind, with launch-on-demand flexibility and minimum infrastructure needs. 

    The SSLV-D1 launched from the First Launch Pad on August 7, 2022, but failed to reach orbit. 

    SSLV launches to Sun-synchronous orbit will be handled in the future by the SSLV Launch Complex (SLC) at Kulasekharapatnam in Tamil Nadu

    After entering the operational phase, the vehicle's manufacture and launch operations would be handled by an Indian consortium led by NewSpace India Limited (NSIL). 

    What Is The Origin And Evolution Of SSLV?

    The SSLV was created with the goal of commercially launching small satellites at a far lower cost and with a greater launch rate than the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)

    SSLV has a development cost of 169.07 crore (US$21 million) and a production cost of 30 crore (US$3.8 million) to 35 crore (US$4.4 million). 

    The expected high launch rate is based on mostly autonomous launch operations and simplified logistics in general. 

    In comparison, a PSLV launch employs 600 officials, but SSLV launch procedures are overseen by a tiny crew of about six persons. 

    The SSLV's launch preparation phase is predicted to be less than a week rather than months. 

    The launch vehicle may be erected vertically, similar to the current PSLV and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), or horizontally, similar to the decommissioned Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) and Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV)

    The vehicle's initial three stages employ HTPB-based solid propellant, with a fourth terminal stage consisting of a Velocity-Trimming Module (VTM) with eight 50 N reaction control thrusters and eight 50 N axial thrusters for altering velocity. 

    SSLV's first and third stages (SS1) are novel, while the second stage (SS2) is derived from PSLV's third stage (HPS3). 

    Where Is The SSLV Launch Complex?

    Early developmental flights and those to inclined orbits would launch from Sriharikota, first from existing launch pads and ultimately from a new facility in Kulasekharapatnam known as the SSLV Launch Complex (SLC). 

    In October 2019, tenders for production, installation, assembly, inspection, testing, and Self Propelled Launching Unit (SPU) were announced. 

    When completed, this proposed spaceport at Kulasekharapatnam in Tamil Nadu would handle SSLV launches to Sun-synchronous orbit. 

    What Is The History Of The SSLV?

    Rajaram Nagappa recommended the development route of a 'Small Satellite Launch Vehicle-1' to launch strategic payloads in a National Institute of Advanced Studies paper in 2016. 

    S. Somanath, then-Director of Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, acknowledged a need for identifying a cost-effective launch vehicle configuration with 500 kg payload capacity to LEO at the National Space Science Symposium in 2016, and development of such a launch vehicle was underway by November 2017. 

    The vehicle design was completed by the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) in December 2018. 

    All booster segments for the SSLV first stage (SS1) static test (ST01) were received in December 2020 and assembled in the Second Vehicle Assembly Building (SVAB). 

    On March 18, 2021, the SS1 first-stage booster failed its first static fire test (ST01). 

    Oscillations were detected about 60 seconds into the test, and the nozzle of the SS1 stage disintegrated after 95 seconds. 

    The test was supposed to last 110 seconds. 

    SSLV's solid first stage SS1 must pass two consecutive nominal static fire tests in order to fly. 

    In August 2021, the SSLV Payload Fairing (SPLF) functional certification test was completed. 

    On 14 March 2022, the second static fire test of SSLV first stage SS1 was performed at SDSC-SHAR and satisfied the specified test goals. 

    How Will The Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) Be Manufactured?

    ISRO has begun development of a Small Satellite Launch Vehicle to serve the burgeoning global small satellite launch service industry. 

    NSIL would be responsible for manufacturing SSLV via Indian industry partners. 


    What Are The Unique Features Of The Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)?

    SSLV has been intended to suit "Launch on Demand" criteria while being cost-effective. 

    It is a three-stage all-solid vehicle capable of launching up to 500 kilograms satellites into 500 km LEO. 

    What Are The Expected Benefits Of The SSLV Rocket?

    Reduced Turn-around Time Launch on Demand Cost Optimization.

    Realization and Operation Ability to accommodate several satellites.

    Minimum infrastructure required for launch Design practices that have stood the test of time.

    The first flight from SDSC SHAR was originally scheduled during the fourth quarter of 2019. It occurred only in August of 2022.

    Following the first developmental flights, ISRO plans to produce SSLV via Indian Industries through its commercial arm, NSIL. 

    What Is The Operational Performance History Of The SSLV?

    The SSLV's maiden developmental flight was place on August 7, 2022. 

    SSLV-D1 was the name of the flying mission. 

    The SSLV-D1 flight's mission goals were not met. 

    The rocket featured three stages and a fourth Velocity Trimming Module (VTM). 

    The rocket stood 34m tall, with a diameter of 2m, and a lift-off mass of 120t in its D1 version. 

    The rocket launched EOS 02, a 135 kilograms Earth observation satellite, and AzaadiSAT, an 8 kg CubeSat payload designed by Indian students to promote inclusion in STEM education. 

    The SSLV-D1 was planned to deploy the two satellite payloads in a circular orbit with a height of 356.2 km and an inclination of 37.2°. 

    The ISRO's stated reason for the mission's failure was software failure. 

    The mission software identified an accelerometer anomaly during the second stage separation, according to the ISRO. 

    As a result, the rocket navigation switched from closed loop to open loop guidance. 

    Despite the fact that this change in guiding mode was part of the redundancy incorporated into the rocket's navigation, it was not enough to save the mission. 

    During open loop guiding mode, the last VTM stage only fired for 0.1s rather than the required 20s. 

    As a result, the two satellites and the rocket's VTM stage were injected into an unstable elliptical 35676 km orbit. 

    The SSLV-final D1's VTM stage had 16 hydrazine-fueled (MMH+MON3) thrusters. 

    Eight of them were to regulate the orbital velocity and the other eight were to control the altitude. 

    During the orbital insertion maneuvers, the VTM stage also controlled pitch, yaw, and roll. 

    The SSLV-three D1's major stages all worked well. 

    However, this was insufficient to provide enough thrust for the two satellite payloads to establish stable orbits. 

    The VTM stage required to burn for at least 20 seconds to impart enough extra orbital velocity and altitude adjustments to put the two satellite payloads into their designated stable orbits. 

    Instead, the VTM activated at 653.5s and shut down at 653.6s after lift-off. 

    After the VTM stage was partially fired, the EOS 02 was released at 738.5s and AazadiSAT at 788.4s after liftoff. 

    These failures occurred, causing the satellites to reach an unstable orbit and then be destroyed upon reentry. 

    What Was The Performance Outcome Of The SSLV D1 Mission?

    SSLV's maiden developmental flight. 

    The mission goal was a circular orbit of 356.2 km height and 37.2° inclination. 

    Two satellite payloads were carried on the trip. 

    1. The 135-kilogram EOS-02 Earth observation satellite 
    2. and the 8-kilogram AzaadiSAT CubeSat. 

    Due to sensor failure and flaws in onboard software, the stage and two satellite payloads were put into an unstable elliptical orbit of 35676 km and then destroyed upon reentry. 

    The mission software, according to the ISRO, failed to detect and rectify a sensor malfunction in the VTM stage. 

    The last VTM stage only fired momentarily (0.1s). 

    What Were The Overall Lessons From The SSLV-D1/EOS-02 Mission?

    Mission ISRO developed a small satellite launch vehicle (SSLV) to launch up to 500 kilograms satellites into Low Earth Orbits on a 'launch-on-demand' basis . 

    The SSLV-D1/EOS-02 Mission's first developmental flight was slated for August 7, 2022, at 09:18 a.m. 

    (IST) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre's First Launch Pad in Sriharikota. 

    The SSLV-D1 mission would send EOS-02, a 135 kilograms satellite, into a low-Earth orbit 350 kilometers above the equator at an inclination of roughly 37 degrees. 

    The mission also transports the AzaadiSAT satellite. 

    SSLV is built with three solid stages weighing 87 t, 7.7 t, and 4.5 t. 

    The satellite is inserted into the desired orbit using a liquid propulsion-based velocity trimming module. 

    • SSLV is capable of launching Mini, Micro, or Nanosatellites (weighing between 10 and 500 kg) into a 500 km planar orbit. 
    • SSLV gives low-cost on-demand access to space. 
    • It has a quick turnaround time, the ability to accommodate numerous satellites, the ability to launch on demand, minimum launch infrastructure needs, and so on. 

    SSLV-D1 is a 34-meter-tall, 2-meter-diameter vehicle with a lift-off mass of 120 tonnes. 

    ISRO developed and built the EOS-02 earth observation satellite. 

    This microsat class satellite provides superior optical remote sensing with excellent spatial resolution in the infrared spectrum. 

    The bus configuration is based on the IMS-1 bus. 

    AzaadiSAT is an 8U Cubesat that weighs around 8 kg. 

    It transports 75 distinct payloads, each weighing roughly 50 grams and performing femto-experiments. 

    These payloads were built with the help of female students from rural areas around the nation. 

    The payloads were assembled by the "Space Kidz India" student team. 

    A UHF-VHF Transponder operating on ham radio frequency to allow amateur radio operators to transmit speech and data, a solid state PIN diode-based Radiation counter to detect the ionizing radiation in its orbit, a long-range transponder, and a selfie camera are among the payloads. 

    The data from this satellite was planned to be received using the ground system built by 'Space Kidz India.'  

    Both satellite missions have failed as a result of the failure of SSLV-D1's terminal stage.

    When Is The SSLV D2 Planned To Lift Off?

    The SSLV's second developmental flight is planned for November of 2022. 

    It is intended to transport four Blacksky Global satellites weighing 56 kg to a 500 km circular orbit with a 50° inclination.  

    It will place the X-ray polarimeter satellite into low Earth orbit(LEO).

    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan.

    ISRO Shukrayaan-1 Venus Mission

      The Indian Space Research Organization has a long history of awe-inspiring the rest of the world by completing space missions at remarkably inexpensive prices. 

      In keeping with this tradition, the ISRO has set its sights on a Venus mission that would cost between Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 crore.

      "The price will be determined by the level of instrumentation. ISRO chairman S Somanath said, "If you install a lot of payload sensors, the cost would automatically go up."

      While foreign space organizations such as NASA spend vast sums of money on space missions, the ISRO prefers to focus on low-cost projects. 

      ISRO's Chandrayan-1 was a low-cost spacecraft developed for about Rs 386 crore. 

      The Chandrayaan-2 mission cost Rs 603 crore to develop, and Rs 367 crore to launch. (1 million USD is roughly = 7.8 Crores INR in 2022)

      The ISRO chairman said the agency is in the process of approaching the Union government for authorization for the mission, speaking to the media on the sidelines of a national conference on Aerospace Quality and Reliability.

      In response to concerns, he said that the timetable for Chandrayan-3 is still being worked out. 

      Following its Moon and Mars expeditions, the ISRO is considering a Venus trip. 

      Despite speculations that the ISRO is aiming a December 2024 launch window for the Venus mission, Somanath stated the timeline has yet to be finalized. 

      It would only be disclosed when the Union government had given its final approval. 

      The ISRO has worked hard to guarantee that it would be a one-of-a-kind mission. 

      "We have to be cautious with such pricey missions," he warned.

      "We don't want to conduct a Venus expedition just for the fun of it. 

      We're doing it because of the distinct identity that this mission will establish among all future Venus expeditions. 

      "That's the aim," Somanath said, adding that the mission would create a lot of data that scientists could use. 

      Despite the fact that the timetable has yet to be disclosed, the ISRO is well prepared. 

      "The technology definition, task package, scheduling, and procurement are all complete. But then it needs to go to the government, which will review it and ultimately approve it," he said. 

      According to him, Chandrayan 3 is now undergoing testing for navigation, instrumentation, and ground simulations. 

      However, no timetable has been established.

      India is preparing to enter the race to get to Venus alongside the US and many other nations after successfully completing Moon and Mars missions. 

      The mission's goal will be to investigate Venus's poisonous and corrosive atmosphere, which is characterized by clouds of sulfuric acid that blanket the planet.

      S Somanath, the head of Isro, said the project has been in the works for years and that the space agency is now "ready to launch an orbiter to Venus." "The project report is complete, the general plans are complete, and the funds have been identified. 

      "Building and launching a mission to Venus in a very short period of time is doable for India since the capacity exists now," the Isro chairman stated during a daylong seminar on Venusian research.

      The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is a Venus orbiter called designed to examine the planet's surface and atmosphere.

      In 2017, funds were given to finish early investigations, and instrument tenders were announced.

      The orbiter's scientific payload capabilities, depending on its ultimate design, would be about 100 kilograms (220 lb) with 500 W of power.

      At periapsis, the elliptical orbit around Venus is projected to be 500 kilometers (310 miles) long and 60,000 kilometers (37,000 miles) long. 

      Payload for science.

      The scientific payload will be 100 kg (220 lb) in weight and would include equipment from India and other nations. 

      Indian payloads and 7 foreign payloads have been shortlisted as of December 2019. 

      Instruments from India

      • Venus SAR L&S-Band
      • VARTISS (HF radar)
      • VSEAM (Surface Emissivity) (Surface Emissivity)
      • VCMC (VTC (Thermal Camera)) (Cloud Monitoring)
      • LIVE (Lightning Sensor)

      • VASP (Spectro Polarimeter)
      • SPAV (Solar occultation photometry)
      • NAVA (Airglow imager)
      • RAVI (RO Experiment)
      • * ETA (Electron Temperature Analyzer)
      • RPA (Retarding Potential Analyzer)
      • Spectrometer of mass
      • (Plasma Analyzer)* VISWAS

      • VREM (Radiation Environment)
      • SSXS (Solar Soft X-ray Spectrometer )
      • VIPER (Plasma Wave Detector)
      • VODEX (Dust experiment)
      • * Collaboration with Germany and Sweden is envisaged for RAVI and VISWAS. 

      International Payloads

        • Space Research Institute, Moscow, and LATMOS, France developed VIRAL (Venus Infrared Atmospheric Gas Linker).
        • IVOLGA is a laser heterodyne NIR spectrometer used to investigate the structure and dynamics of Venus's mesosphere.

      Overview Of The ISRO Shukrayaan Mission

      Surface/subsurface stratigraphy and resurfacing processes are among the three broad research areas for this mission; second, study atmospheric chemistry, dynamics, and compositional variations; and third, study solar irradiance and solar wind interaction with Venus' ionosphere while studying the structure, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere.

      Shukrayaan Mission Inception, History And Status

      ISRO has been researching the possibility of future interplanetary missions to Mars and Venus, Earth's nearest planetary neighbors, based on the success of Chandrayaan and the Mangalyaan. 

      • The Venus mission proposal was initially proposed in 2012 at a Tirupati space meet. 
      • The Indian government increased funding for the Department of Space by 23% in its 2017–18 budget. 
      • The budget specifies funds "for Mars Orbiter Mission II and Mission to Venus" under the space sciences department, and it was approved to perform preliminary investigations after the 2017–18 request for funding. 

      ISRO issued a 'Announcement of Opportunity' (AO) on April 19, 2017, requesting scientific payload ideas from Indian universities based on wide mission parameters.

      ISRO issued another 'Announcement of Opportunity' on November 6, 2018, soliciting payload applications from the worldwide scientific community. 

      The allowable scientific payload capacity was reduced from 175 kg in the first AO to 100 kg. 

      In 2018, India's ISRO and France's CNES had talks about collaborating on this mission and developing autonomous navigation and aerobraking technology together.

      • In addition, using his knowledge from the Vega mission, French astronomer Jacques Blamont indicated interest in using inflated balloons to examine the Venusian atmosphere to U R Rao. 
      • These instrumented balloons may be launched from an orbiter and gather long-term observations while floating in the planet's comparatively benign upper atmosphere, similar to the Vega missions. 
      • ISRO agreed to investigate a proposal to research the Venusian atmosphere at 55 kilometers (34 miles) altitude with a balloon probe carrying a 10 kilogram (22 pound) payload. 

      The Venus project is still in the configuration research phase as of late 2018, and ISRO has not yet received complete sanction from the Indian government.

      In 2019, IUCAA Director Somak Raychaudhury announced that a drone-like probe was being considered as part of the mission. 

      ISRO scientist T Maria Antonita stated in a report to NASA's Decadal Planetary Science Committee that the launch would take place in December 2024. 

      She also said that a backup date in 2026 exists. 

      ISRO has selected 20 foreign bids as of November 2020, including collaborations with Russia, France, Sweden, and Germany. 

      ISRO and the Swedish Institute of Space Physics are working together on the Shukrayaan-1 project. 

      ISRO chairman S. Somanath indicated in May 2022 that the mission will launch in December 2024, with a backup launch window in 2031.

      Shukrayaan Mission Salient Features

      Type of mission Shukrayaan-1: Venus orbiter

      Operator: ISRO

      Planned mission duration: 4 years

      Spacecraft characteristics:

      Manufacturer: ISAC

      2,500 kg launch mass (5,500 lb)

      100 kilogram payload mass (220 lb)

      Payload power is 500 watts (0.67 horsepower).

      December 2024 is the scheduled launch date (planned)

      Launch Vehicle: GSLV Mark II rocket

      SDSC SHAR Contractor : ISRO Launch Site

      Missions Primary Components:

      • Orbiter of Venus
      • Atmospheric probe for Venus
      • Aerobot balloon is a spacecraft component.

      ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan.


      The GISAT-1 will be the country's first geostationary orbiting sky eye or earth observation satellite.
      After the GISAT-1 launch, the EOS-4 or Risat-1A.
      Earth Observation Satellite - GISAT-1 Mission


      UPDATE (6 am IST, Aug. 12th 2021) - Anomaly observed during the cryogenic engine phase of the GSLV F-10 launch vehicle. Mission could not be completed successfully as planned.

      According to authorities, the Indian space agency is conducting pre-rocket launch operations at its rocket port in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, in preparation for the launch of its earth observation satellite EOS-03 or Geo Imaging Satellite-1 (GISAT-1) early on Thursday. 

      • While ISRO authorities remain tight-lipped on the launch,  it has been learned that the rocket—the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-F10 (GSLV-F10)—is on its way to the second launch pad, laden with GISAT-1, and is set to blast off at 5.43 a.m. 

      The GISAT-1 will be the country's first geostationary orbiting sky eye or earth observation satellite. 

      • Just over 18 minutes into its journey, the 51.70-meter-tall, 416-ton GSLV-F10 will put GISAT-1 in the geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO), from where the satellite will be lifted to its ultimate location using its onboard engines. 
      • In contrast to other remote sensing satellites in a lower orbit that can only come over a location at regular intervals, once put in geostationary orbit, the satellite will keep a constant eye on the areas of interest, moving in rhythm with the rotation of the globe and so seeming stationary. 

      The GISAT-1 was originally scheduled to launch on March 5, 2020, however the ISRO announced the mission's delay only hours before launch due to a technical issue. 

      • The COVID-19 epidemic and subsequent lockdown caused the mission to be postponed. 
      • It was necessary to disassemble and clean up the rocket. 
      • Following that, the GISAT-1 launch was scheduled for March 2021, however it was again postponed due to issues with the satellite's battery. 
      • The satellite and rocket were getting prepared for their flight at Sriharikota after the battery was replaced when the second wave of COVID-19 swept in, infecting several at the rocket launch center. 

      The 2,268 kilogram GISAT-1, according to the Indian space agency, would give a real-time picture of a wide area of the region of interest at regular intervals. 

      • It will also allow for immediate monitoring of natural catastrophes, episodic occurrences, and any other short-term phenomena. 
      • The satellite's payload imaging sensors will include a 42-meter resolution six-band multi-spectral visible and near-infrared sensor, 318-meter resolution 158-band hyper-spectral visible and near-infrared sensor, and 191-meter resolution 256-band hyper-spectral short wave infrared sensor. 
      • For the first time, a four-metre diameter Ogive shaped payload fairing (heat shield) constructed of composite would be utilized in the rocket, according to ISRO. 

      After the GISAT-1 launch, the EOS-4 or Risat-1A.

      RISAT 1A  is a radar imaging satellite with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that can capture images day and night seeing through clouds, would be launched, according to ISRO. 

      • The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) will launch the Risat-1A satellite, which weighs over 1,800 kg, in September, according to ISRO. 
      • The Risat-1A is a follow-on microwave remote sensing satellite to Risat-1, and is designed to guarantee SAR in C-Band continuity while also delivering microwave data to the user community for operational purposes. 
      • With a mission life of five years and the capacity to operate day, night, and in all weather situations, the satellite will play a critical role in the nation's defense. 

      Among other things, the satellite features high-capacity data handling systems and storage devices. 

      • The satellite, according to the ISRO, will offer image data for a variety of applications linked to land, water, and the environment, including agriculture, forestry, and water resource management. 
      • An ISRO official previously said that an earth observation satellite would transmit images that will be utilized by various agencies based on their requirements. 
      • In 2012, a PSLV rocket launched the 1,858 kg Risat-1 satellite. It lasted five years on the mission.


      From the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota, India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-F10 (GSLV-F10) will launch the Geo Imaging Satellite-1 (GISAT-1) satellite. From the Second Launch Pad, the launch will take place.

      • For the first time in GSLV history, a 4 meter diameter Ogive shaped payload fairing (OPLF) is flown to accommodate a larger spacecraft.
      • GISAT-1 is the first state-of-the-art agile Earth observation satellite that GSLV-F10 will put into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. The satellite will next use its onboard propulsion engine to reach geostationary orbit.


      170 km perigee

      36,297 km Apogee

      19.4 degrees of inclination

      Earth Observation Satellite - GISAT-1 Mission

      GISAT-1 is the world's first state-of-the-art agile Earth observation satellite to be launched from Geostationary Orbit.

      Mission Objectives 



      • To offer regular imaging of a wide area region of interest in near real time.

      • To keep track of natural catastrophes, episodic events, and any other short-term occurrences.

      • Obtaining spectral fingerprints for agriculture, forestry, mineralogy, disaster warning, cloud characteristics, snow and glaciers, and oceanography.

      The satellite is built on a modified I-2k bus that can carry multispectral and hyperspectral payloads in several bands with better spatial and temporal resolution.

      You may also want to read more about space based systems here.

      What Is Artificial General Intelligence?

      Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is defined as the software representation of generalized human cognitive capacities that enables the ...