The GISAT-1 will be the country's first geostationary orbiting sky eye or earth observation satellite.
After the GISAT-1 launch, the EOS-4 or Risat-1A.
Earth Observation Satellite - GISAT-1 Mission


UPDATE (6 am IST, Aug. 12th 2021) - Anomaly observed during the cryogenic engine phase of the GSLV F-10 launch vehicle. Mission could not be completed successfully as planned.

According to authorities, the Indian space agency is conducting pre-rocket launch operations at its rocket port in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, in preparation for the launch of its earth observation satellite EOS-03 or Geo Imaging Satellite-1 (GISAT-1) early on Thursday. 

  • While ISRO authorities remain tight-lipped on the launch,  it has been learned that the rocket—the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-F10 (GSLV-F10)—is on its way to the second launch pad, laden with GISAT-1, and is set to blast off at 5.43 a.m. 

The GISAT-1 will be the country's first geostationary orbiting sky eye or earth observation satellite. 

  • Just over 18 minutes into its journey, the 51.70-meter-tall, 416-ton GSLV-F10 will put GISAT-1 in the geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO), from where the satellite will be lifted to its ultimate location using its onboard engines. 
  • In contrast to other remote sensing satellites in a lower orbit that can only come over a location at regular intervals, once put in geostationary orbit, the satellite will keep a constant eye on the areas of interest, moving in rhythm with the rotation of the globe and so seeming stationary. 

The GISAT-1 was originally scheduled to launch on March 5, 2020, however the ISRO announced the mission's delay only hours before launch due to a technical issue. 

  • The COVID-19 epidemic and subsequent lockdown caused the mission to be postponed. 
  • It was necessary to disassemble and clean up the rocket. 
  • Following that, the GISAT-1 launch was scheduled for March 2021, however it was again postponed due to issues with the satellite's battery. 
  • The satellite and rocket were getting prepared for their flight at Sriharikota after the battery was replaced when the second wave of COVID-19 swept in, infecting several at the rocket launch center. 

The 2,268 kilogram GISAT-1, according to the Indian space agency, would give a real-time picture of a wide area of the region of interest at regular intervals. 

  • It will also allow for immediate monitoring of natural catastrophes, episodic occurrences, and any other short-term phenomena. 
  • The satellite's payload imaging sensors will include a 42-meter resolution six-band multi-spectral visible and near-infrared sensor, 318-meter resolution 158-band hyper-spectral visible and near-infrared sensor, and 191-meter resolution 256-band hyper-spectral short wave infrared sensor. 
  • For the first time, a four-metre diameter Ogive shaped payload fairing (heat shield) constructed of composite would be utilized in the rocket, according to ISRO. 

After the GISAT-1 launch, the EOS-4 or Risat-1A.

RISAT 1A  is a radar imaging satellite with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that can capture images day and night seeing through clouds, would be launched, according to ISRO. 

  • The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) will launch the Risat-1A satellite, which weighs over 1,800 kg, in September, according to ISRO. 
  • The Risat-1A is a follow-on microwave remote sensing satellite to Risat-1, and is designed to guarantee SAR in C-Band continuity while also delivering microwave data to the user community for operational purposes. 
  • With a mission life of five years and the capacity to operate day, night, and in all weather situations, the satellite will play a critical role in the nation's defense. 

Among other things, the satellite features high-capacity data handling systems and storage devices. 

  • The satellite, according to the ISRO, will offer image data for a variety of applications linked to land, water, and the environment, including agriculture, forestry, and water resource management. 
  • An ISRO official previously said that an earth observation satellite would transmit images that will be utilized by various agencies based on their requirements. 
  • In 2012, a PSLV rocket launched the 1,858 kg Risat-1 satellite. It lasted five years on the mission.


From the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota, India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-F10 (GSLV-F10) will launch the Geo Imaging Satellite-1 (GISAT-1) satellite. From the Second Launch Pad, the launch will take place.

  • For the first time in GSLV history, a 4 meter diameter Ogive shaped payload fairing (OPLF) is flown to accommodate a larger spacecraft.
  • GISAT-1 is the first state-of-the-art agile Earth observation satellite that GSLV-F10 will put into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. The satellite will next use its onboard propulsion engine to reach geostationary orbit.


170 km perigee

36,297 km Apogee

19.4 degrees of inclination

Earth Observation Satellite - GISAT-1 Mission

GISAT-1 is the world's first state-of-the-art agile Earth observation satellite to be launched from Geostationary Orbit.

Mission Objectives 



• To offer regular imaging of a wide area region of interest in near real time.

• To keep track of natural catastrophes, episodic events, and any other short-term occurrences.

• Obtaining spectral fingerprints for agriculture, forestry, mineralogy, disaster warning, cloud characteristics, snow and glaciers, and oceanography.

The satellite is built on a modified I-2k bus that can carry multispectral and hyperspectral payloads in several bands with better spatial and temporal resolution.

You may also want to read more about space based systems here.

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