Showing posts with label USA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label USA. Show all posts

Artificial Intelligence - What Is RoboThespian?


RoboThespian is an interactive robot created by Engineered Arts in England.

It is described as a humanoid, which means it was meant to look like a person.

The initial version of the robot was released in 2005, with improvements following in 2007, 2010, and 2014.

The robot is human-sized, with a plastic face, metal arms, and legs that can move in a variety of directions.

With its digital voice, the robot's video camera eyes can track a person's movements and infer his or her age and mood.

All RoboThespians, according to Engineered Arts' website, come with a touchscreen that enables users to personalize and manage their experience with the robot, including the ability to animate it and modify its language.

Users may also operate it remotely via a tablet, however since the robot can be preprogrammed, no live operator is necessary.

RoboThespian was created to engage with people in public places including colleges, museums, hotels, trade events, and exhibits.

The robot is utilized as a tour guide in venues like science museums.

It can scan QR codes, identify facial expressions, react to gestures, and communicate with people through a touchscreen kiosk.

RoboThespian may also amuse in addition to these practical uses.

It's jam-packed with songs, gestures, welcomes, and first impressions.

RoboThespian has also performed in front of an audience.

It has the ability to sing, dance, perform, read from a script, and communicate with emotion.

It can respond to audiences and forecast their emotions since it is equipped with cameras and face recognition.

According to Engineered Arts, it may have a "vast variety of facial expression" as an actor and "can be precisely displayed with the delicate subtlety, generally only achieved by human performers" (Engineered Arts 2017).

During the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 2015, the drama Spillikin had its world debut at the Pleasance Theatre.

In a love tale about a husband who constructs a robot for his wife to keep her company after he dies, RoboThespian appeared with four human performers.

The play toured the United Kingdom from 2016 to 2017, receiving critical praise.

Companies who purchase a RoboThespian may tailor the robot's content to meet their specific requirements.

The appearance of the robot's face and other design elements may be changed.

It can feature a projected face, grippable hands, and moveable legs.

RoboThespians are now placed at NASA Kennedy Center in the United States, the National Science and Technology Museum in Spain, and the Copernicus Science Centre in Poland, among others.

University of Central Florida, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University College London, and University of Barcelona are among the academic institutions where the robot may be found.

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

Find Jai on Twitter | LinkedIn | Instagram

You may also want to read more about Artificial Intelligence here.

See also: 

Autonomous and Semiautonomous Systems; Ishiguro, Hiroshi.

References & Further Reading:

Engineered Arts. 2017. “RoboThespian.” Engineered Arts Limited.

Hickey, Shane. 2014. “RoboThespian: The First Commercial Robot That Behaves Like a Person.” The Guardian, August 17, 2014.

PSLV-C52 Launch Of EOS-04, INSPIREsat-1 And INS-2TD

    Watch the PSLV-C52/EOS-04 Launch Live Streaming. (Scheduled On: February 14, 2022, at 05:30 IST)

    PSLV-C 52 Launch Updates:

    ISRO's first launch of 2022, under the leadership of new Chairman S. Somanath, went off without a hitch, precisely positioning all three satellites in their assigned orbits. 

    The PSLV C-52 of the Indian Space Research Organization lighted up the pre-dawn black sky and Pulicat Lake with thick orange fumes as it rose into the air, breaking the early stillness with the booming roar of the launch vehicle that had three satellites on board. 

    ISRO's first launch of 2022, under the leadership of new Chairman S. Somanath, went off without a hitch, precisely positioning all three satellites in their assigned orbits. 

    At 0617 IST, PSLV-C52 inserted EOS-04 into a 529km altitude sun-synchronous polar orbit, according to the Indian Space Research Organization. 

    The PSLV C-52 was the PSLV's 54th flight and the 23rd mission to use the PSLV-XL variant. 

    PSLV-C52 launched three satellites from the first launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota at 5.59 a.m on Monday, including its principal payload, the EOS-04 radar imaging satellite. 

    • The EOS-04 satellite was put in a solar synchronous orbit 17 minutes after launch. 
    • The rocket then inserted the two additional satellites, INS-2TD and Inspiresat-1, a minute later. 
    • The fourth stage was passivated to remove residual propellants four minutes after lift-off, using mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON) passivation followed by mono methyl hydrazine (MMH) passivation, two propellants that power PSLV's upper stage. 
    • The passivation process lasted ten minutes. 
    • Passivation is the process of removing any remaining fuel from a rocket to avoid the higher stages from exploding. 
    • The top stage burns inactively or vents the leftover propellants. 

    PSLV's 54th flight and 23rd mission with six PSOM-XLs used the PSLV-XL configuration. 

    "The main satellite, EOS-04, has been placed in a very exact orbit by PSLV-C52," Isro chairman S Somanath stated, congratulating the crew. 

    The INS-2TD and INSPIREsat-1 co-passenger satellites have also been put in the proper orbits. 

    This spacecraft will be one of the most valuable assets in the country's arsenal. 

    We will come back with another PSLV launch very soon." 

    "First and foremost, let me congratulate the PSLV crew for the exact inject of EOS-04," Srikanth remarked. 

    The launch has re-energized the ISRO crew. 

    The most awaited spacecraft, EOS-04, is an earth observation mission that will serve the country in agriculture, soil moisture, disaster management, disaster assessment, carbon inventory, forest and plantation management, and many other sectors with indigenously developed state-of-the-art technology SAR." 

    "After separation, EOS-04's health is in fantastic condition. 

    I'm pleased to report that the solar panels have been deployed autonomously and have begun to provide the desired electricity.... 

    The satellite will be ready to offer the first sight of photos in a few days following calibration and outgassing. 

    Many government services will be enhanced by the services. 

    EOS-04 is a minor step toward the country's objective of opening the space sector with industry engagement in the form of build to print, as well as assemble and test. 

    We were able to achieve a reasonable level of success in our endeavor." 

    The launch's success was critical for ISRO, who had a quiet 2020 with just two launches, one of which, the GSLVF10, crashed shortly after launch. 

    On Monday, the PSLV C-52, carrying the Earth Observation Satellite EOS 04, the INS-2TD, an ISRO technology demonstrator, and the INSPIREsat-1, a student satellite, launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, SHAR, Sriharikota, at 5.59 a.m. 

    The three satellites were separated and sent into their orbits 18 minutes later. 

    "The EOS 04, the principal spacecraft, has been placed in a precise orbit. 

    The co-passenger satellites have been positioned in the proper orbit," Mr. Somanath said, adding that ISRO would "be back with the next PSLV launch very shortly." 

    • The EOS-4, a radar imaging satellite with a 10-year mission life, is intended to deliver high-quality pictures in all weather circumstances for agricultural, forestry, plantation, flood mapping, soil moisture, and hydrological applications. 
      • According to ISRO, the satellite would acquire earth observation data in the C-band, complementing and supplementing data from the Resourcesat, Cartosat, and RISAT-2B series. 

    • The INS-2TD will measure land and water surface temperatures, agricultural and forest delineation, and thermal inertia as a forerunner to the India-Bhutan joint satellite [INS 2-B]. 

    • INSPIREsat-1 is a student satellite developed by the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology in collaboration with the University of Colorado in the United States. 

      • Its goal is to improve knowledge of ionosphere dynamics and coronal heating processes on the Sun. 

    On Monday, Prime Minister Narendra Modi congratulated India's space experts on the success of the PSLV C52 mission launch. 

    "Congratulations to our space experts on the successful launch of PSLV C52 mission," Mr. Modi tweeted. 

    About The EOS-04 Earth Observation Satellite:

    EOS-04 is a Radar Imaging Satellite that is intended to deliver high-quality photos in all weather circumstances for applications including agriculture, forestry, and plantations, soil moisture and hydrology, and flood mapping. 

    The spacecraft will gather data in the C-Band band, completing observations made by the Resourcesat, Cartosat, and RISAT-2B series. The satellite has a ten-year operational life. 

    The tentative launch time of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C52, is planned for February 14, 2022, at 05:59 a.m from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre's First Launch Pad at Sriharikota. 

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch PSLV-C52, an earth observation satellite, into orbit on February 14 at 5.59 a.m., with the countdown beginning on Sunday morning. This is the ISRO's first launch mission of the year. 

    PSLV-C52 is planned to place the 1710 kg EOS-04 into a 529 km sun-synchronous polar orbit, according to ISRO. 

    PSLV-C52 Mission Summary: 

    1. The PSLV-C52 will be launched from Sriharikota's Satish Dhawan Space Centre's First Launch Pad. 



    2. According to the space agency, EOS-04 is a Radar Imaging Satellite intended to deliver high-quality photos in all weather circumstances for applications such as agriculture, forestry and plantations, soil moisture and hydrology, and flood mapping. 

    3. The mission will also carry two small satellites as co-passengers:


    1. An Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology student satellite (INSPIREsat-1) in collaboration with the University of Colorado Boulder's Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics,
    2. And an ISRO technology demonstrator satellite, INS-2TD. 

    PSLV-C52 will also carry an ISRO technology demonstration satellite (INS-2TD), which is a forerunner to the India-Bhutan Joint Satellite Program (INS-2B). 

    • The 17.5-kilogram satellite will only be operational for six months. 

    The launch comes months after the disastrous loss of the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS-03) in August of last year, which was unable to be deployed owing to a "technical problem." 

    • A thermal imaging sensor on board the satellite will aid in the evaluation of land, water surface temperatures, vegetation delineation, and thermal inertia. 

    The final payload is an 8.1-kilogram student satellite called INSPIRESat-1, which was designed by the Indian Institute of Space Science & Technology in collaboration with the University of Colorado's Laboratory of Atmospheric & Space Physics. 

    • The satellite will help us better understand the dynamics of the ionosphere and the sun's coronal heating process. 
    • It has a one-year operating lifespan. 

    PSLV C-52 - The 54th Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Launch

    The PSLV's 54th mission will see it ascend to a Sun Synchronous Orbit height of 529 kilometers above the Earth's surface, where it will deploy the Earth Observation Satellite. 

    • The PSLV is an Indian-designed third-generation launch vehicle that can carry up to 1,750 kg of cargo to 600 km altitude Sun-Synchronous Polar Orbits. 
    • In 2008, the four-stage rocket successfully launched Chandrayaan-1 to the Moon, and in 2013, the Mars Orbiter Spacecraft to Mars. 
    • The liftoff mass of the 44-meter-tall vehicle is 320 tons. 

    Stages Of The PSLV-C52:

    • PSLV's first stage is powered by the S139 solid rocket motor, which is supplemented by six solid strap-on boosters, 
    • While the second stage is powered by the Vikas engine, which was developed in India. 
    • The PSLV's third stage is a solid rocket motor that gives high thrust to the higher stages following the launch's atmospheric phase, while the fourth stage is made up of two Earth-storable liquid engines. 

    ISRO's Upcoming Missions

    In the next three months, ISRO plans to launch five significant satellites in order to reclaim its lost ground in space operations, despite stiff competition from China and commercial companies such as SpaceX, which plans to launch one satellite per week in 2022. 

    • ISRO will launch OCEANSAT-3 and INS 2B ANAND on PSLV C-53 in March and SSLV-D1 Micro SAT in April 2022, after the PSLV-C52 mission. 
    • ISRO will also launch GSAT-21, New Space India Limited's first fully sponsored satellite (NSIL). 
    • The space agency, which recently appointed renowned rocket scientist S Somnath as its new leader, has 19 missions slated for flight in 2022. 
    • Eight launch vehicle flights, seven spacecraft missions, and four technology demonstration missions are among them. 

    In August, the agency will launch its ambitious Chandrayaan-3 mission to the Moon, aiming for Gaganyaan's first uncrewed trip, the country's first astronaut mission.

    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan.

    You may also want to read more about space based systems here.

    Perseverance Collects Its First Martian Rock Sample

    The rock core has been sealed in an airtight titanium sample container and will be accessible in the future. 

    The first piece of Martian rock, a core from Jezero Crater little thicker than a pencil, was collected today by NASA's Perseverance rover. 

    The historic milestone was verified by data obtained by mission controllers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Southern California. 

    The core has been sealed in an airtight titanium sample container and will be retrievable in the future. 

    NASA and ESA (European Space Agency) are preparing a series of future flights to return the rover's sample tubes back Earth for further analysis as part of the Mars Sample Return program. 

    These samples would be the first time materials from another planet have been scientifically identified , chosen and returned to our world. 

    NASA Administrator Bill Nelson stated, "NASA has a history of establishing high objectives and then achieving them, demonstrating our nation's dedication to exploration and innovation." 

    “This is a huge accomplishment, and I can't wait to see what Perseverance and our team come up with next.” 

    Perseverance's mission includes studying the Jezero region to understand the geology and ancient habitability of the area, as well as characterizing the past climate, in addition to identifying and collecting samples of rock and regolith (broken rock and dust) while searching for signs of ancient microscopic life. 

    “This is really a momentous moment for all of NASA research,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, assistant administrator for science at NASA Headquarters in Washington. 

    “We will be doing the same with the samples Perseverance gathers as part of our Mars Sample Return program, much as the Apollo Moon missions showed the lasting scientific significance of returning samples from other planets for examination here on our planet. 

    We anticipate jaw-dropping findings across a wide range of scientific disciplines, including investigation into the issue of whether life ever existed on Mars, using the most advanced science equipment on Earth.”

    Perseverance Rover Sample Tubes from NASA. 

    The rover's sample tubes, marvels of engineering, must be robust enough to securely transport Red Planet materials back to Earth in perfect shape. 

    The tubes in NASA's Mars 2020 Perseverance rover's belly are set to transport the first samples from another planet back to Earth in history. 

    Future researchers will utilize these carefully chosen samples of Martian rock and regolith (broken rock and dust) to seek for evidence of possible microbial life on Mars in the past, as well as to address other important questions regarding the planet's history. 

    On February 18, 2021, Perseverance will touch down at Mars' Jezero Crater. 

    The 43 sample tubes heading to Mars, which are about the size and form of a typical lab test tube, must be lightweight and durable enough to withstand the rigors of the round journey, as well as clean enough that future scientists can be sure that what they're studying is 100 percent Mars. 

    "When compared to Mars, Earth is brimming with signs of life," Ken Farley, a Mars 2020 project scientist at Caltech in Pasadena, said. 

    "We wanted to get rid of those indications completely so that any residual evidence could be reliably identified and distinguished when the first samples were returned."

    Engineered containers have been used to transport samples from other planets since Apollo 11. 

    In 1969, Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Buzz Aldrin brought back 47.7 pounds (21.8 kilograms) of samples from the Moon's Sea of Tranquility in two triple-sealed briefcase-size metal cases. 

    The rock boxes on Apollo, on the other hand, only had to maintain their contents immaculate for approximately 10 days – from the lunar surface until splashdown – before being taken away to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. 

    The scientific value of Perseverance's sample tubes must be isolated and preserved for more than ten years. 

    Sample Return from Mars

    Mission scientists will decide when and where NASA's newest rover will dig for samples as it explores Jezero Crater. 

    The Sample Caching System, the most complex and most sophisticated device ever launched into space, will be used to package this valuable Martian cargo. 

    After the samples have been placed on the Martian surface, NASA will complete the relay by launching two more missions in collaboration with ESA (the European Space Agency). 

    The sample return campaign's second mission will dispatch a "fetch" rover to collect the hermetically sealed tubes and transfer them to a dedicated sample return container within the Mars Ascent Vehicle. 

    If the Mars 2020 Perseverance rover stays healthy for the duration of the mission, it may transport tubes containing samples to the area of the Mars Ascent Vehicle. 

    The tubes will subsequently be sent into orbit by the Mars Ascent Vehicle. 

    The last mission will send an orbiter to Mars to meet the enclosed samples, collect them in a highly secure containment capsule, and return them to Earth (as early as 2031). 

    Sturdy Containers

    Each sample tube is made mostly of titanium and weighs less than 2 ounces (57 grams). 

    After Perseverance places the tubes on Mars' surface, a white outer covering protects them from being heated by the Sun, which may change the chemical makeup of the samples. 

    The crew will be able to identify the tubes and their contents thanks to laser-etched serial numbers on the outside. 

    Each tube must fit within Perseverance's Sample Caching System's stringent constraints, as well as those of future missions. 

    "We discovered almost 60 distinct measurements to examine despite the fact that they are less than 6 inches [15.2 cm] long," stated JPL Sample Tube Cognizant Engineer Pavlina Karafillis. 

    "Because of the complexities of all the intricate processes they would travel through throughout the Mars Sample Return mission, the tube was considered unsuitable for flight if any measurement was off by approximately the thickness of a human hair." #Jezero is 100 percent pure.# Precision engineering is just one aspect of the task at hand. 

    The tubes are also the result of stringent cleaning requirements. 

    All of NASA's planetary missions use stringent procedures to avoid the entry of organic, inorganic, or biological material from Earth. 

    However, since these tubes may contain evidence that life previously existed elsewhere in the cosmos, the Mars 2020 team needed to further minimize the chance that they could house Earthly artifacts that would obstruct the scientific process. 

    Nothing should be in a tube until the Sample Caching System starts filling it with 9 cubic inches (147 cubic centimeters) of Jezero Crater, according to the directive (about the size of a piece of chalk). 

    "And they meant it when they said 'nothing,'" Ian Clark, the mission's assistant project systems engineer for sample tube cleaning at JPL, said. 

    "For example, we wanted to keep the total quantity of Earth-based organic molecules in a particular sample to fewer than 150 nanograms to accomplish the type of research the project is pursuing. 

    We were restricted to fewer than 15 nanograms in a sample for a group of certain chemical components - ones that are highly suggestive of life." A billionth of a gram is referred to as a nanogram. 

    A typical thumbprint contains approximately 45,000 nanograms of organics, which is about 300 times the maximum permitted in a sample tube. 

    The crew had to rewrite the book on cleaning in order to satisfy the mission's strict requirements. 

    "All of our assembly was done in a hyper-clean-room environment, which is really a clean room within a clean room," Clark said. 

    "The sample tubes would be cleaned with filtered air blasts, washed with deionized water, and acoustically cleaned with acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and other exotic cleaning chemicals in the interim between assembly processes." The crew would test impurities and bake the tubes after each cleaning for good measure. 

    Each of the 43 sample tubes chosen for flight from a field of 93 had produced almost 250 pages of paperwork and 3 terabytes of pictures and movies by the time they were chosen. 

    Up to 38 of the tubes onboard Perseverance will be filled with Martian rock and regolith. 

    The other five are "witness tubes," which have been filled with molecular and particle contaminants-capturing materials. 

    They'll be opened one at a time on Mars, mainly at sample collection sites, to observe the ambient environment and record any Earthly impurities or pollutants from the spacecraft that may be present during sample collection. 

    The return and analysis of the sample and witness tubes on Earth will enable the entire range of terrestrial scientific laboratory capabilities to examine the samples, utilizing equipment that are too big and complicated to transport to Mars. 

    More Information about the Mission

    Astrobiology, particularly the hunt for evidence of ancient microbial life, is a major goal of Perseverance's mission on Mars. 

    The rover will study the planet's geology and climatic history, lay the path for human exploration of Mars, and be the first mission to gather and store Martian rock and regolith (broken rock and dust). 

    Following missions, which NASA is considering in collaboration with ESA (European Space Agency), would send spacecraft to Mars to retrieve these stored samples from the surface and return them to Earth for further study. 

    The Mars 2020 mission is part of a broader program that includes lunar missions in order to prepare for human exploration of Mars. 

    NASA's Artemis lunar exploration plans are tasked with sending humans to the Moon by 2024 and establishing a long-term human presence on and around the Moon by 2028. 

    The Perseverance rover was constructed and is operated by JPL, which is administered for NASA by Caltech in Pasadena, California.

    The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA's Moon to Mars exploration strategy, which includes Artemis lunar missions to assist prepare for human exploration of Mars. 

    The Perseverance rover was constructed and is operated by JPL, which is administered for NASA by Caltech in Pasadena, California. 

    For additional information about Perseverance, go to:


    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

    You may also want to read more about Space Missions and Systems here.

    How Many Samples Will NASA' s Perseverance Rover Collect On Mars?

    On August 6, NASA's Perseverance rover tried to drill into the Martian surface for the first time after six months of traveling on Mars. 

    Everything seemed to proceed according to plan, but when the rover's operators examined the sample tube after it had been sealed and stowed within the rover, they discovered it to be empty. 

    • Jennifer Trosper, the Perseverance project manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said, "It went pretty well, other than the rock reacted in a manner that didn't enable us to collect any material in the tube." 
    • The mission's operators believe that when the rover bore into the rock to collect a sample, it disintegrated into a fine powder and spilled out of the tube, based on the data. 

    Trosper adds, "We need a more cooperative kind of rock." 

    • “This one was crumbly — it may have had a firm surface on the outside, but as we went inside, all the grains simply fell apart.” 
    • This didn't happen during Earth-based testing of the sample equipment, and it hasn't happened with any of the previous Mars rovers. 
    • While the sampling tube cannot be unsealed and reused, researchers had requested a sample of Martian air, which is included in the sealed tube. 
    • Trosper explains, "We weren't aiming to capture the air sample, but it's not a waste of a tube." 

    There are 43 sample tubes on Perseverance, so there are still lots of chances to gather Martian rocks. 

    • When it comes to future sample efforts with Perseverance, Trosper believes this failed endeavor isn't a reason for worry. 
    • The crew intends to utilize the scientific equipment aboard the rover to check that a sample was obtained before sealing the tube and stashing it within the rover for the next attempt, which is scheduled for early September.

    During its two-year journey, the rover will gather approximately 40 samples. 

    • Perseverance will eventually store these samples on Mars' surface, where they will be picked up and returned to Earth by a later NASA mission. 
    • Returning the samples to Earth will enable scientists to examine them in much more depth than we can on Mars, particularly when looking for indications of previous life.

    The Mars 2020 Perseverance mission is part of NASA's Moon to Mars exploration strategy, which includes Artemis lunar missions to assist prepare for human exploration of Mars. 

    The Perseverance rover was constructed and is operated by JPL, which is administered for NASA by Caltech in Pasadena, California. 

    For additional information about Perseverance, go to:


    ~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

    You may also want to read more about Space Missions and Systems here.

    What Is Artificial General Intelligence?

    Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is defined as the software representation of generalized human cognitive capacities that enables the ...