Artificial Intelligence - What Is The Deep Blue Computer?

The color deep blue Since the 1950s, artificial intelligence has been utilized to play chess.

Chess has been studied for a variety of reasons.

First, since there are a limited number of pieces that may occupy distinct spots on the board, the game is simple to represent in computers.

The game is quite challenging to play.

There are a tremendous number of alternative states (piece configurations), and exceptional chess players evaluate both their own and their opponents' actions, which means they must predict what could happen many turns in the future.

Finally, chess is a competitive sport.

When a human competes against a computer, they are comparing intellect.

Deep Blue, the first computer to beat a reigning chess world champion, demonstrated that machine intelligence was catching up to humans in 1997.

Deep Blue was first released in 1985.

Feng-Hsiung Hsu, Thomas Anantharaman, and Murray Campbell created ChipTest, a chess-playing computer, while at Carnegie Mellon University.

The computer used brute force, generating and comparing move sequences using the alpha-beta search technique in order to determine the best one.

The generated positions would be scored by an evaluation function, enabling several locations to be compared.

Furthermore, the algorithm was adversarial, anticipating the opponent's movements in order to discover a means to defeat them.

If a computer has enough time and memory to execute the calculations, it can theoretically produce and evaluate an unlimited number of moves.

When employed in tournament play, however, the machine is restricted in both directions.

ChipTest was able to generate and assess 50,000 movements per second because to the usage of a single special-purpose chip.

The search process was enhanced in 1988 to add single extensions, which may rapidly discover a move that is superior to all other options.

ChipTest could construct bigger sequences and see farther ahead in the game by swiftly deciding superior actions, testing human players' foresight.

Mike Browne and Andreas Nowatzyk joined the team as ChipTest developed into Deep Thought.

Deep Thought was able to process about 700,000 chess moves per second because to two upgraded move genera tor chips.

Deep Thought defeated Bent Larsen in 1988, becoming the first computer to defeat a chess grandmaster.

After IBM recruited the majority of the development team, work on Deep Thought continued.

The squad has now set its sights on defeating the world's finest chess player.

Garry Kasparov was the finest chess player in the world at the time, as well as one of the best in his generation.

Kasparov, who was born in Baku, Azerbaijan, in 1963, won the Soviet Junior Championship when he was twelve years old.

He was the youngest player to qualify for the Soviet Chess Championship at the age of fifteen.

He won the under-twenty world championship when he was seventeen years old.

Kasparov was also the world's youngest chess champion, having won the championship at the age of twenty-two in 1985.

He held the championship until 1993, when he was forced to relinquish it after quitting the International Chess Federation.

He instantly won the Classical World Champion, which he held from 1993 to 2000.

Kasparov was the best chess player in the world for the majority of 1986 to 2005 (when he retired).

Deep Thought faced off against Kasparov in a two-game match in 1989.

Kasparov easily overcame Deep Thought by winning both games.

Deep Thought evolved into Deep Blue, which only appeared in two bouts, both of which were versus Kasparov.

When it came to the matches, Kasparov was at a disadvantage since he was up against Deep Blue.

He would scout his opponents before matches, as do many chess players, by watching them play or reading records of tournament matches to obtain insight into their play style and methods.

Deep Blue, on the other hand, has no prior match experience, having only played in private matches against the developers before to facing Kasparov.

As a result, Kasparov was unable to scout Deep Blue.

The developers, on the other hand, had access to Kasparov's match history, allowing them to tailor Deep Blue to his playing style.

Despite this, Kasparov remained confident, claiming that no machine would ever be able to defeat him.

On February 10, 1996, Deep Blue and Kasparov played their first six-game match in Philadelphia.

Deep Blue was the first machine to defeat a reigning world champion in a single game, winning the opening game.

After two draws and three victories, Kasparov would go on to win the match.

The contest drew international notice, and a rematch was planned.

Deep Blue and Kasparov faced off in another six-game contest on May 11, 1997, at the Equitable Center in New York City, after a series of improvements.

The match had a crowd and was broadcast.

At this point, Deep Blue was com posed of 400 special-purpose chips capable of searching through 200,000,000 chess moves per second.

Kasparov won the first game, while Deep Blue won the second.

The following three games were draws.

The final game would determine the match.

In this final game, Deep Blue capitalized on a mistake by Kasparov, causing the champion to concede after nineteen moves.

Deep Blue became the first machine ever to defeat a reigning world champion in a match.

Kasparov believed that a human had interfered with the match, providing Deep Blue with winning moves.

The claim was based on a move made in the second match, where Deep Blue made a sacrifice that (to many) hinted at a different strat egy than the machine had used in prior games.

The move made a significant impact on Kasparov, upsetting him for the remainder of the match and affecting his play.

Two factors may have combined to generate the move.

First, Deep Blue underwent modifications between the first and second game to correct strategic flaws, thereby influencing its strategy.

Second, designer Murray Campbell men tioned in an interview that if the machine could not decide which move to make, it would select one at random; thus there was a chance that surprising moves would be made.

Kasparov requested a rematch and was denied.

~ Jai Krishna Ponnappan

You may also want to read more about Artificial Intelligence here.

See also: 

Demis Hassabis.

Further Reading:

Campbell, Murray, A. Joseph Hoane Jr., and Feng-Hsiung Hsu. 2002. “Deep Blue.” Artificial Intelligence 134, no. 1–2 (January): 57–83.

Hsu, Feng-Hsiung. 2004. Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer That Defeated the World Chess Champion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kasparov, Garry. 2018. Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins. London: John Murray.

Levy, Steven. 2017. “What Deep Blue Tells Us about AI in 2017.” Wired, May 23, 2017.

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